Search results: Found 3

Listing 1 - 3 of 3
Sort by
Alzheimer's Disease and the Fornix

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199594 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-959-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This e-book focuses primarily on the role of the fornix as a functional, prognostic, and diagnostic marker of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and the application of such a marker in clinical practice. Researchers have long been focused on the cortical pathology of AD, since the most important pathologic features are the senile plaques found in the cortex, and the neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal loss that start from the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampus. In addition to gray matter structures, histopathological studies indicate that the white matter is also altered in AD. The fornix is a white matter bundle that constitutes a core element of the limbic circuits, and is one of the most important anatomical structures related to memory. The fornices originate from the bilateral hippocampi, merge at the midline of the brain, again divide into the left and right side, and then into the precommissural and the postcommissural fibers, and terminate at the septal nuclei, nucleus accumbens (precommissural fornix), and hypothalamus (postcommissural fornix). These functional and anatomical features of the fornix have naturally captured researchers’ attention as possible diagnostic and prognostic markers of AD. Growing evidence indicates that the alterations seen in the fornix are potentially a good marker with which to predict future conversion from mild cognitive impairment to AD, and even from a cognitively normal state to AD. The degree of alteration is correlated with the degree of memory impairment, indicating the potential for the use of the fornix as a functional marker. Moreover, there have been attempts to stimulate the fornix to recover the cognitive function lost with AD. Our goal is to provide information about the status of current research and to facilitate further scientific and clinical advancement in this topic.

Brain Connectivity in Autism

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192823 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-282-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The brain's ability to process information crucially relies on connectivity. Understanding how the brain processes complex information and how such abilities are disrupted in individuals with neuropsychological disorders will require an improved understanding of brain connectivity. Autism is an intriguingly complex neurodevelopmental disorder with multidimensional symptoms and cognitive characteristics. A biological origin for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) had been proposed even in the earliest published accounts (Kanner, 1943; Asperger, 1944). Despite decades of research, a focal neurobiological marker for autism has been elusive. Nevertheless, disruptions in interregional and functional and anatomical connectivity have been a hallmark of neural functioning in ASD. Theoretical accounts of connectivity perceive ASD as a cognitive and neurobiological disorder associated with altered functioning of integrative circuitry. Neuroimaging studies have reported disruptions in functional connectivity (synchronization of activated brain areas) during cognitive tasks and during task-free resting states. While these insights are valuable, they do not address the time-lagged causality and directionality of such correlations. Despite the general promise of the connectivity account of ASD, inconsistencies and methodological differences among studies call for more thorough investigations. A comprehensive neurological account of ASD should incorporate functional, effective, and anatomical connectivity measures and test the diagnostic utility of such measures. In addition, questions pertaining to how cognitive and behavioral intervention can target connection abnormalities in ASD should be addressed. This research topic of the Frontiers in Human Neuroscience addresses “Brain Connectivity in Autism” primarily from cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging perspectives.

Bridging the gap before and after birth: Methods and technologies to explore the functional neural development in humans

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196876 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-687-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Infant brain damage is a serious condition that affects millions of babies each year. The period from late gestation to the first year of life is the most critical one for the development of central and autonomous nervous systems. Medical conditions such as preterm birth may compromise brain function and the end result usually is that the baby may experience long-term neurological problems related to a wide range of psychological, physical and functional complications, with consequent life-long burdens for the individuals and their families, and a high socio-economic impact for the health care system and the whole of society. During the last years, several techniques have been employed to monitor the brain functional development in utero and after birth. As well, various analytical methods have been used to understand the functional maturation of the brain and the autonomous nervous system. However, in spite of the rapid improvement of diagnostic methods and procedures, there is still a widely recognized, severe shortage of clinically viable means for the high quality monitoring of the brain function in early life with a direct relevance to acute neurological illness and future neurocognitive outcomes. The studies collected in this e-book document the most recent advancements in monitoring systems, analytical methods and clinical diagnostic procedures that contribute to increase our knowledge of the functional development of the human brain and autonomous nervous system during pregnancy and after birth, with the ultimate goal of reducing fetal impairment and improving healthcare in the neonatal and infant period.

Listing 1 - 3 of 3
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (3)


License

CC by (3)


Language

english (3)


Year
From To Submit

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

-->