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Fire Regimes: Spatial and Temporal Variability and Their Effects on Forests

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ISBN: 9783038423904 9783038423911 Year: Pages: VIII, 424 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-391-1
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-02 09:58:44
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Fire regimes (occurrence, cycle, severity, size, etc.) are key factors in many forest ecosystems, as they are often critical drivers of forest composition, dynamics, and ecosystem processes. Fire regimes vary in space and time according to climatic, physical and biological factors. A better understanding of the interacting factors controlling fire regimes may contribute to improving fire and forest management and their future projection in the context of global change. Knowledge of how fire regimes affect natural landscapes is also used in forestry as a template to manage the forest for wood production. This approach, keeping biodiversity and ecological processes associated with natural fire regimes, may also help in maintaining forest productivity and resilience in the face of climate change. This Special Issue aims to synthesize current understanding of factors affecting fire regime characteristics, to present recent research on fire regimes and their effects on forest ecosystems, and to illustrate how this knowledge could be translated into forest or fire management strategies in the context of global change.

Forest Pathology and Plant Health

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ISBN: 9783038426714 9783038426721 Year: Pages: VIII, 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-672-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 13:57:31
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Every year, a number of new forest pathosystems are discovered as the result of introduction of alien pathogens, host shifts and jumps, hybridization and recombination among pathogens, etc. Disease outbreaks may also be favored by climate change and forest management. The mechanisms driving the resurgence of native pathogens and the invasion of alien ones need to be better understood in order to draft sustainable control strategies. For this Special Issue, we welcome population biology studies providing insights on the epidemiology and invasiveness of emergent forest pathogens possibly by contrasting different scenarios varying in pathogen and host populations size, genetics, phenotype and phenology, landscape fragmentation, occurrence of disturbances, management practices, etc. Both experimental and monitoring approaches are welcome. In summary, this special issue focuses on how variability in hosts, pathogens, or ecology may affect the emergence of new threats to plant species.

Coastal Morphodynamics

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ISBN: 9783038426769 9783038426752 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-675-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 14:00:59
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Every year, a number of new forest pathosystems are discovered as the result of introduction of alien pathogens, host shifts and jumps, hybridization and recombination among pathogens, etc. Disease outbreaks may also be favored by climate change and forest management. The mechanisms driving the resurgence of native pathogens and the invasion of alien ones need to be better understood in order to draft sustainable control strategies. For this Special Issue, we welcome population biology studies providing insights on the epidemiology and invasiveness of emergent forest pathogens possibly by contrasting different scenarios varying in pathogen and host populations size, genetics, phenotype and phenology, landscape fragmentation, occurrence of disturbances, management practices, etc. Both experimental and monitoring approaches are welcome. In summary, this special issue focuses on how variability in hosts, pathogens, or ecology may affect the emergence of new threats to plant species.

Optimierte Netzverträglichkeit von Gleichstrom-Schnellladesystemen durch aktive Netzbeeinflussung

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ISBN: 9783731505709 Year: Pages: VI, 197 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000057948 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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The roll-out of a high-performance DC electric vehicle supply equipment infrastructure is a key factor for the success of electric mobility. This work enhances existing control schemes for active rectifiers utilized in charging systems, resulting in minimized requirements for network connection. In addition, active power quality filtering is achieved. The proposed control concept is experimentally validated using a fast charger system.

Wildland Fire, Forest Dynamics, and Their Interactions

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ISBN: 9783038970996 9783038971009 Year: Pages: X, 330 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 12:14:44
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Wildland fire is an important, pervasive, and a sometimes-destructive ecological process in many forest ecosystems across the globe. In some cases, wildland fire maintains and reinforces forest dynamics. This is common, for example, in forests with thick-barked species that are adapted to frequent, low-severity fires or in forests where species’ regenerative traits (e.g., serotiny, resprouting) allow them to endure regimes of recurrent high-severity fire. However, wildland fire can also act as a catalyst that changes the successional trajectory of forest ecosystems, particularly if the factors responsible for historical fire regimes (e.g., frequency, severity, or season) have been substantially altered and exceed species’ adaptive capacity. Examples of these situations include effects of extreme fire weather and drought, fuel buildup due to fire exclusion or insect-induced mortality, and interactions between these factors. Some of these situations may result in fire-induced conversions from forest to non-forest ecosystems.We seek submissions aimed at wildland fire, forest dynamics, and their interactions. We are particularly interested in studies evaluating additional factors and stressors that influence the characteristics of fire, as well as the composition and structure of vegetation, such as insect- and drought-induced mortality, extreme weather events, human ignitions, excessive fuels, and climate change.

Forest Hydrology and Watershed

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039213856 / 9783039213863 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-386-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Hydrological processes in forested watersheds are influenced by environmental, physiological, and biometric factors such as precipitation, radiation, temperature, species type, leaf area, and extent and structure of forest ecosystems. Over the past two centuries, forest coverage and forest structures have been impacted globally by anthropogenic activities, for example, forest harvesting, and conversion of forested landscapes for plantations and urbanization. In addition, since the industrial revolution, climate change has resulted in profound impacts on forest ecosystems due to higher carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration or CO2 fertilization, warmer temperatures, changes in frequency and intensity of extreme weather events and natural disturbances. As a result, hydrological processes in forested watersheds have been altered by these natural and anthropogenic factors and these changes are expected to accelerate due to future changing climatic conditions.

Microgrids

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ISBN: 9783039218684 / 9783039218691 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-869-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Electrical power systems are evolving at the generation, transmission, and distribution levels. At distribution level, small generating and storage units—the so-called distributed energy sources (DERs)—are being installed close to consumption sites. The expansion of DERs is empowering renewable energy source integration and, as a consequence, new actors are appearing in electrical systems. Among them, the prosumer is a game-changer; the fruit of the behavior transformation of the consumer who has not only the ability to consume power but also to produce it. Microgrids can be understood as DER installations that have the capability of both grid-connected and grid-isolated operation. During the last decades, there has been a significant deployment of microgrids (e.g., in countries like the United States, Switzerland, and Denmark) and a consequent increase in renewable energy generation. This is contributing to the decarbonization of electrical power systems. However, the variability and intermittency of renewable sources introduce uncertainty, which implies a more complex operation and control. Taking into account that existing and future planned microgrids are being/going to be interconnected to the current electrical network, challenges in terms of design, operation, and control at power system level need to be addressed, considering existing regulations.

Keywords

demand-side management --- optimization --- deterministic optimization --- stochastic optimization --- residential users --- devices scheduling --- renewable sources --- storage systems --- electric energy market --- power quality --- chaos synchronization detection --- extension theory --- direct search method (DSM) --- microgrid (MG) --- distributed energy resources (DERs) --- distributed generation (DG) --- optimal dispatch --- microgrids --- multi-agent --- coordinated control --- IEC 61850 Standard --- generic object oriented substation event (GOOSE) communication --- power quality disturbances --- S-transform --- multiresolution --- particle swarm optimization --- decision tree --- reliability evaluation --- microgrid --- distributed generation --- battery storage --- vehicle-to-grid --- ruleless EV --- regular EV --- combined power generation system --- microgrid --- coordinative optimization of energy --- predictive control --- genetic algorithm --- distributed generation (DG) --- microgrid --- microgrid stability controller (MSC) --- total sliding-mode control --- hierarchical control scheme --- maximum electrical efficiency --- nonlinear programming --- solid oxide fuel cell --- electric vehicle (EV) --- vehicle-to-grid (V2G) --- isolated grid --- load frequency control (LFC) --- multivariable generalized predictive control (MGPC) --- current harmonic reduction --- active filter --- power quality --- buck-boost converter --- renewable energy source --- optimal capacity --- reliability --- renewable --- energy storage --- genetic algorithm --- DC microgrid --- communication delay --- droop control --- load power sharing --- mesh configuration --- radial configuration --- electric vehicle --- energy management system --- peak-shift --- peak-cut --- vehicle information system --- photovoltaic feasibility --- flexible generation --- distributed energy resources --- power quality --- DC distribution --- DC microgrid --- inrush current --- grounding --- DC architectures --- datacenter --- residential power systems --- telecommunication power management --- smart grids --- microgrid --- network planning --- power distribution --- grid independence --- distributed energy resources --- micro-grid --- IEC 61850 --- plug and play --- operation --- small-scale standalone microgrid --- HESS --- ESS effective rate --- coordinated control strategy --- cost and life --- technical and economic optimization --- microgrid --- flywheel energy storage (FES) --- doubly fed induction machine --- frequency control --- smoothing wind power --- distributed generation --- congestion problems --- medium-voltage networks --- curtailment --- flexibility --- microgrid test facility --- distributed generation --- integrated electrical and thermal grids --- flexible and configurable architecture --- energy efficiency --- distributed optimization --- optimal power flow --- microgrids --- embedded system --- smart grid --- smart inverter --- distributed energy resource --- power quality

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