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Neuroactive metabolites of ethanol: a behavioral and neurochemical synopsis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193752 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-375-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Abstract

Ethanol is a very elusive drug, which has mechanisms of action that are diverse and relatively non-selective. Moreover, ethanol has been demonstrated to be a biologically active substance by itself, but also a pro-drug of the neuroactive metabolites, acetaldehyde and acetate. Acetaldehyde has traditionally been known as a toxic substance with several effects on multiple systems. However, in the last few decades evidence has accumulated to reveal the specific and, in some instances, distinct neural actions of acetaldehyde and acetate that are in part responsible for some of the observed psychoactive effects of ethanol. The present issue will address these challenges to provide an up-to-date synopsis of the behavioral and neurophysiological impact of the two direct metabolites of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetate. In doing so, this issue will present human and rodent evidence on their behavioral and neurophysiological impact, either when administered alone as drugs, or when metabolically-derived from their parent compound. Emphasis will be placed to stress the importance of the different enzymatic systems that intervene to produce these metabolites, either peripherally and/or directly in the brain. Similarly, this Research Topic will be aimed at addressing some of the possible mechanisms of action of acetaldehyde and acetate in different brain areas and in different intracellular systems. Furthermore, the issue will lay out some of the suggested mechanisms of action of ethanol and of its metabolites by which they form adducts with other molecules and neurotransmitters such as dopamine and opioids (which lead to salsolinol and tetrahydropapaveroline, respectively), and their impact on the synthesis and actions of neuromodulators such as adenosine and the cannabinoid system.

Keywords

Ethanol --- Catalase --- acetate --- Dopamine --- Salsolinol --- Opioids --- Addiction --- Drug abuse

Recent Changes in Drug Abuse Scenario: The Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) Phenomenon

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ISBN: 9783038975076 / 9783038975083 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-508-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Neurology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 10:04:51
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In parallel with a decrease/stabilization in the use of internationally controlled drugs, the market of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) continues increasing, year after year, with the Internet playing a pivotal role in contributing to this complex scenario. At times, although misleading, the terms ‘legal highs’ or ’research chemicals’ have been used to describe these molecules. Overall, about 5% of 19–24-year-old European people have already experimented with them, because both NPS’ intense psychoactive effects and their virtual non-detectability in routine drug screenings. Although ‘novel’ typically refers to molecules that have recently become a reason of current/potential public health concern, at times, the NPS scenario may indeed focus on pharmaceutical molecules. These may have either not entered the market, or are currently prescribed, with their potential for misuse resulting from the relating high dosages/idiosyncratic ways of self-administration. A concurrent use of a range of different NPS, and/or medications, is frequently being reported and this may be a reason of further clinical complications. Given their complex pharmacodynamics, there are increasing levels of concern about the onset of acute/chronic psychopathological associated with NPS intake. This Special Issue aims at providing an overview of a range of NPS-related issues, e.g., preclinical, epidemiological, and clinical pharmacological; the medical and psychopathological consequences associated with their intake; and, finally, the analytical chemistry and forensic analysis challenges associated with the NPS phenomenon.

Religion and Crime: Theory, Research, and Practice

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ISBN: 9783038973300 9783038973317 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-331-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Religion --- Arts in general --- Social Sciences --- Social and Public Welfare
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-15 11:32:52
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Abstract

This volume contains contemporary and cutting-edge research on religion and crime, which includes data-driven (quantitative and qualitative), conceptual, review, and policy-oriented papers.

Discovering Addiction

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ISBN: 9780472116102 9780472901159 9780472901159 Year: DOI: 10.3998/mpub.269246 Language: English
Publisher: University of Michigan Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102034
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-06 08:17:53
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Discovering Addiction brings the history of human and animal experimentation in addiction science into the present with a wealth of archival research and dozens of oral-history interviews with addiction researchers. Professor Campbell examines the birth of addiction science---the National Academy of Sciences's project to find a pharmacological fix for narcotics addiction in the late 1930s---and then explores the human and primate experimentation involved in the succeeding studies of the "opium problem," revealing how addiction science became "brain science" by the 1990s.

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