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General Anesthesia: From Theory to Experiments

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197491 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-749-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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General anesthesia is a standard medical procedure in today's hospital practice. Although in most cases the administration of anesthetics does not affect severely the patients health, side effects of anesthesia are well-known, such as nausea or cognitive impairment. Moreover 1-2 out of 1000 patients under surgery report a partial wake up from anesthesia during the operation. The reason for such a partial lack of control of depth of anesthesia is that medical procedures are highly optimized based on experience but the neural dynamics during general anesthesia is far from being understood. One reason for this lack of understanding is both the complex neural interactions of neurons on different spatial and temporal scales and the poorly understood action of anesthetics on neural populations. For instance, anesthetic agents act on synaptic receptors on a microscopic scale essentially evoking a macroscopic change of population activity, such as Local Field Potentials, EEG/MEG or resulting change of cerebral blood flow. This population effect then triggers the loss of consciousness in patients. This Research Topic aims to address recent theoretical and experimental advances in the field. The theoretical and experimental studies represent a good overview over the current state of research in the field and provides a deeper insight into the underlying neural mechanisms. Each article in the issue focusses on a specific current research topic in general anesthesia research and several articles introduce to the topic in a pedagogical way. The issue covers various types of anaesthesia and the most important topics in the field, such as (but not limited to) recent advances in theoretical models and states of consciousness reflected in experimental data, the connectivity changes observed during anesthesia or effects of specific drugs on brain activity. The introduction style of the papers facilitates the reader to understand the background of the research aspect and even allows readers not familiar with general anesthesia research to enter the research domain. Hence the Research Topic aims to provide on one hand an overview of the current state of the art and on the other hand a good starting point for new researchers in the field.

Attention, predictions and expectations and their violation: attentional control in the human brain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193677 Year: Pages: 211 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-367-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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In the burdened scenes of everyday life, our brains must select from among many competing inputs for perceptual synthesis - so that only the most relevant receive full attention and irrelevant (distracting) information is suppressed. At the same time, we must remain responsive to salient events outside our current focus of attention - and balancing these two processing modes is a fundamental task our brain constantly needs to solve. Both the physical saliency of a stimulus, as well as top-down predictions about imminent sensations crucially influence attentional selection and consequently the response to unexpected events. Research over recent decades has identified two separate brain networks involved in predictive top-down control and reorientation to unattended events (or oddball stimuli): the dorsal and ventral fronto-parietal attention systems of the human brain. Moreover, specific electrophysiological brain responses are known to characterize attentional orienting as well as the processing of deviant stimuli. However, many key questions are outstanding. What are the exact functional differences between these cortical attention systems? How are they lateralised in the two hemispheres? How do top-down and bottom-up signals interact to enable flexible attentional control? How does structural damage to one system affect the functionality of the other in brain damaged patients? Are there sensory-specific and supra-modal attentional systems in the brain? In addition to these questions, it is now accepted that brain responses are not only affected by the saliency of external stimuli, but also by our expectations about sensory inputs. How these two influences are balanced, and how predictions are formed in cortical networks, or generated on the basis of experience-dependent learning, are intriguing issues. In this Research Topic, we aim to collect innovative contributions that shed further light on the (cortical) mechanisms of attentional control in the human brain. In particular, we would like to encourage submissions that investigate the behavioural correlates, functional anatomy or electrophysiological markers of attentional selection and reorientation. Special emphasis will be given to studies investigating the context-sensitivity of these attentional processes in relation to prior expectations, trial history, contextual cues or physical saliency. We would like to encourage submissions employing different research methods (psychophysical recordings, neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI, MEG, EEG or ECoG, as well as neurostimulation methods such as TMS or tDCS) in healthy volunteers or neurological patients. Computational models and animal studies are also welcome. Finally, we also welcome submission of meta-analyses and reviews articles that provide new insights into, or conclusions about recent work in the field.

Neural Implementations of Expertise

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196883 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-688-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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When we think about expertise, we usually consider people who master tasks at a level not reachable by most other people. Although we rarely realise it, however, most humans are experts in many aspects of everyday life. This expertise enables us to find our way through a complex environment that is our life. For instance, we can instantly recognise multiple objects and relations between them to form a meaningful unit, such as an office. Thus, research on expertise is not only important to investigate the cognitive and neural processes within an “elite” group, but it is also a powerful tool to understand how everyone can acquire complex skills. The goal of this Research Topic is to shed further light on the common and distinct neural mechanisms that implement various kinds of expertise. We broadly define expertise as skill in any perceptual, cognitive, social or motor domain, with the common core being optimised information processing due to knowledge acquired from repeated experiences. Thus, we are interested in the full range of mental processes modulated or modified by expertise, from “simple” object or pattern recognition to complex decision making or problem solving in a particular domain. These domains can range from everyday or occupational expertise to sports and rather artificial domains such as board games. In all cases, the aim should be to elucidate how the brain implements these sometimes incredible feats. We are particularly interested in connecting cognitive theories about expertise and expertise-related performance differences with models and data on the neural implementation of expertise. We welcome original research contributions using the full range of behavioural neuroscience methods, as well as theoretical, methodological or historical reviews, and opinion papers focusing on any of the above-mentioned aspects.

Keywords

Expertise --- Sport --- Board games --- Music --- Language --- Perception --- MRI --- fMRI --- EEG

The cognitive and neural organisation of speech processing

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197750 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-774-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Speech production and perception are two of the most complex actions humans perform. The processing of speech is studied across various fields and using a wide variety of research approaches. These fields include, but are not limited to, (socio)linguistics, phonetics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology, and cognitive neuroscience. Research approaches range from behavioural studies to neuroimaging techniques such as Magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography (MEG/EEG) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), as well as neurophysiological approaches, such as the recording of Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs), and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Each of these approaches provides valuable information about specific aspects of speech processing. Behavioural testing can inform about the nature of the cognitive processes involved in speech processing, neuroimaging methods show where (fMRI and MEG) in the brain these processes take place and/or elucidate on the time-course of activation of these brain areas (EEG and MEG), while neurophysiological methods (MEPs and TMS) can assess critical involvement of brain regions in the cognitive process. Yet, what is currently unclear is how speech researchers can combine methods such that a convergent approach adds to theory/model formulation, above and beyond the contribution of individual component methods? We expect that such combinations of approaches will significantly forward theoretical development in the field. The present research topic comprise a collection of manuscripts discussing the cognitive and neural organisation of speech processing, including speech production and perception at the level of individual speech sounds, syllables, words, and sentences. Our goal was to use findings from a variety of disciplines, perspectives, and approaches to gain a more complete picture of the organisation of speech processing. The contributions are grouped around the following five main themes: 1) Spoken language comprehension under difficult listening conditions; 2) Sub-lexical processing; 3) Sensorimotor processing of speech; 4) Speech production. The contributions used a variety of research approaches, including behavioural experiments, fMRI, EEG, MEG, and TMS. Twelve of the 14 contributions were on speech perception processing, and the remaining two examined speech production. This Research Topic thus displays a wide variety of topics and research methods and this comprehensive approach allows an integrative understanding of currently available evidence as well as the identification of concrete venues for future research.

Keywords

Speech --- Perception --- production --- TMS --- fMRI --- EEG --- MEG --- behavioural

Beyond Reward: Insights from Love and Addiction

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450701 Year: Pages: 131 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-070-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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It is an interesting topic to discuss addiction and love in the context of reward. In this e-book, we begin with an animal study of comparison between drug and natural reward. Then, some papers aim to understand the reward system underlying behavioral addiction focusing on technology, for example Internet addiction and mobile phone dependence. The third part of this e-book addresses the topic of love. Considered as a whole, this e-book demonstrates that drug and behavioral addictions are frequently related with negative consequences, while romantic love is related with a positive consequence. That's why romantic love may be considered as a natural addiction. We think that the notion of romantic love as a positive addiction may offer a new view for future research in the field.It is an interesting topic to discuss addiction and love in the context of reward. In this e-book, we begin with an animal study of comparison between drug and natural reward. Then, some papers aim to understand the reward system underlying behavioral addiction focusing on technology, for example Internet addiction and mobile phone dependence. The third part of this e-book addresses the topic of love. Considered as a whole, this e-book demonstrates that drug and behavioral addictions are frequently related with negative consequences, while romantic love is related with a positive consequence. That's why romantic love may be considered as a natural addiction. We think that the notion of romantic love as a positive addiction may offer a new view for future research in the field.

Keywords

Addiction --- drug --- romantic love --- reward system --- fMRI --- EEG

Recent Advances and Challenges on Big Data Analysis in Neuroimaging

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451289 Year: Pages: 195 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-128-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Big data is revolutionizing our ability to measure and study the human brain. New technology increases the resolution of images that are being study as well as enables researchers to study the brain as it functions. These technological advances are combined with efforts to collect neuroimaging data on large numbers of subjects, in some cases longitudinally. This combination of advances in measurement and scope of studies requires novel development in the statistical analysis. Fast, scalable, robust and accurate models and approaches need to be developed to make headway on these problems. This volume represents a unique collection of researchers providing deep insights on the statistical analysis of big neuroimaging data.

Towards a New Cognitive Neuroscience: Modeling Natural Brain Dynamics

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192717 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-271-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Decades of brain imaging experiments have revealed important insights into the architecture of the human brain and the detailed anatomic basis for the neural dynamics supporting human cognition. However, technical restrictions of traditional brain imaging approaches including functional magnetic resonance tomography (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetoencephalography (MEG) severely limit participants' movements during experiments. As a consequence, our knowledge of the neural basis of human cognition is rooted in a dissociation of human cognition from what is arguably its foremost, and certainly its evolutionarily most determinant function, organizing our behavior so as to optimize its consequences in our complex, multi-scale, and ever-changing environment. The concept of natural cognition, therefore, should not be separated from our fundamental experience and role as embodied agents acting in a complex, partly unpredictable world. To gain new insights into the brain dynamics supporting natural cognition, we must overcome restrictions of traditional brain imaging technology. First, the sensors used must be lightweight and mobile to allow monitoring of brain activity during free participant movements. New hardware technology for electroencephalography (EEG) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows recording electrical and hemodynamic brain activity while participants are freely moving. New data-driven analysis approaches must allow separation of signals arriving at the sensors from the brain and from non-brain sources (neck muscles, eyes, heart, the electrical environment, etc.). Independent component analysis (ICA) and related blind source separation methods allow separation of brain activity from non-brain activity from data recorded during experimental paradigms that stimulate natural cognition. Imaging the precisely timed, distributed brain dynamics that support all forms of our motivated actions and interactions in both laboratory and real-world settings requires new modes of data capture and of data processing. Synchronously recording participants’ motor behavior, brain activity, and other physiology, as well as their physical environment and external events may be termed mobile brain/body imaging ('MoBI'). Joint multi-stream analysis of recorded MoBI data is a major conceptual, mathematical, and data processing challenge. This Research Topic is one result of the first international MoBI meeting in Delmenhorst Germany in September 2013. During an intense workshop researchers from all over the world presented their projects and discussed new technological developments and challenges of this new imaging approach. Several of the presentations are compiled in this Research Topic that we hope may inspire new research using the MoBI paradigm to investigate natural cognition by recording and analyzing the brain dynamics and behavior of participants performing a wide range of naturally motivated actions and interactions.

Visual Dysfunction in Schizophrenia: A View into the Mechanisms of Madness?

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195152 Year: Pages: 319 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-515-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-30 16:33:44
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Research on visual perception in schizophrenia has a long history. However, it is only recently that it has been included in mainstream efforts to understand the cognitive neuroscience of the disorder and to assist with biomarker and treatment development (e.g., the NIMH CNTRICS and RDoC initiatives). Advances in our understanding of visual disturbances in schizophrenia can tell us about both specific computational and neurobiological abnormalities, and about the widespread computational and neurobiological abnormalities in the illness, of which visual disturbances constitute well-studied, replicable, low-level examples. Importantly, far from being a passive sensory registration process, visual perception is active, inferential, and hypothesis-generating, and therefore can provide excellent examples of breakdowns in general brain functions in schizophrenia. Despite progress made in understanding visual processing disturbances in schizophrenia, many challenges exist and many unexplored areas are in need of examination. For example, the directional relationships between perceptual and cognitive disturbances (e.g., in attention, memory, executive function, predictive coding) remain unclear in many cases, as do links with symptoms, including visual hallucinations. The effect of specific visual disturbances on multisensory integration in schizophrenia has also not been explored. In addition, few studies of vision in schizophrenia have used naturalistic stimuli, including real-world objects, and almost no studies have examined processing during interaction with objects or visual exploration, which can provide important data on functioning of the perception for action pathway. Relatedly, studies of visual processing in schizophrenia have also not been conducted within contexts that include emotional stimulation and the presence of reinforcers - characteristics of many real-world situations - and the consequences of this are likely to be an incomplete view of how and when perception is abnormal in the condition. An additional important area involves treatment of visual disturbances in schizophrenia. Two major questions regarding this are: 1) can visual processing be improved in cases where it is impaired (and by what types of interventions affecting which cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms)? and 2) what are the clinical and functional benefits of improving specific visual functions in people with schizophrenia? Other important and understudied questions concern: 1) the extent to which indices of visual functioning can serve as biomarkers such as predictors of relapse, treatment response, and/or recovery; 2) the potential role of visual functioning in diagnosing and predicting illness; 3) the extent to which some visual perception disturbances are diagnostically specific to schizophrenia; and 4) the extent to which visual disturbances are truly manifestations of disease, as opposed to aspects of normal variation that, in combination with disease, serves to modify the clinical presentation. This Frontiers Research Topic explores some of these, and other issues facing this exciting interface between vision science and schizophrenia research. We include papers that span the entire range of different Frontiers paper types, including those that are data driven (using psychophysics, electroencephalography, neuroimaging, computational and animal models, and other methods), reviews, hypotheses, theories, opinion, methods, areas of impact, and historical perspectives.

Basic and applied research on deception and its detection

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192540 Year: Pages: 249 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-254-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Deception is a ubiquitous phenomenon in social interactions and has attracted a significant amount of research during the last decades. The majority of studies in this field focused on how deception modulates behavioral, autonomic, and brain responses and whether these changes can be used to validly identify lies. Especially the latter question, which historically gave rise to the development of psychophysiological "lie detection" techniques, has been driving research on deception and its detection until today. The detection of deception and concealed information in forensic examinations currently constitutes one of the most frequent applications of psychophysiological methods in the field. With the increasing use of such methods, the techniques for detecting deception have been controversially discussed in the scientific community. It has been proposed to shift from the original idea of detecting deception per se to a more indirect approach that allows for determining whether a suspect has specific knowledge of crime-related details. This so-called Concealed Information Test is strongly linked to basic psychological concepts concerning memory, attention, orienting, and response monitoring. Although research in this field has intensified with the advancement of neuroimaging techniques such as PET and fMRI in the last decade, basic questions on the psychological mechanisms underlying modulatory effects of deception and information concealment on behavioral, autonomic, and brain responses are still poorly understood. This Research Topic brings together contributions from researchers in experimental psychology, psychophysiology, and neuroscience focusing on the understanding of the broad concept of deception including the detection of concealed information, with respect to basic research questions as well as applied issues. This Research Topic is mainly composed of originalresearch articles but reviews and papers elaborating on novel methodological approaches have also been included. Experimental methods include, but are not limited to, behavioral, autonomic, electroencephalographic or brain imaging techniques that allow for revealing relevant facets of deception on a multimodal level. While this Research Topic primarily includes laboratory work, relevant issues for the field use of such methods are also discussed.

Eye movement-related brain activity during perceptual and cognitive processing

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192731 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-273-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The recording and analysis of electrical brain activity associated with eye movements has a history of several decades. While the early attempts were primarily focused on uncovering the brain mechanisms of eye movements, more recent approaches use eye movements as markers of the ongoing brain activity to investigate perceptual and cognitive processes. This recent approach of segmenting brain activity based on eye movement behavior has several important advantages. First, the eye movement system is closely related to cognitive functions such as perception, attention and memory. This is not surprising since eye movements provide the easiest and the most accurate way to extract information from our visual environment and the eye movement system largely determines what information is selected for further processing. The eye movement-based segmentation offers a great way to study brain activity in relation to these processes. Second, on the methodological level, eye movements constitute a natural marker to segment the ongoing brain activity. This overcomes the problem of introducing artificial markers such as ones for stimulus presentation or response execution that are typical for a lab-based research. This opens possibilities to study brain activity during self-paced perceptual and cognitive behavior under naturalistic conditions such as free exploration of scenes. Third, by relating eye movement behavior to the ongoing brain activity it is possible to see how perceptual and cognitive processes unfold in time, being able to predict how brain activity eventually leads to behavior. This research topic illustrates advantages of the combined recording and analysis of eye movements and neural signals such as EEG, local field potentials and fMRI for investigation of the brain processes in humans and animals. The contributions include research papers, methodology papers and reviews demonstrating conceptual and methodological achievements in this rapidly developing field.

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