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Biomass can be converted to energy, biofuels, and bioproducts via thermochemical conversion processes, such as combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification. Combustion technology is most widely applied on an industrial scale. However, biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes are still in the research and development stage. The major products from these processes are syngas, biooil, and char (called also biochar for agronomic application). Among these products, biomass chars have received increasing attention for different applications, such as gasification, cocombustion, catalysts or adsorbents precursors, soil amendment, carbon fuel cells, and supercapacitors. This Special Issue provides an overview of biomass char production methods (pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonization, etc.), characterization techniques (e.g., scanning electronic microscopy, Xray fluorescence, nitrogen adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Xray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption and mass spectrometry), their properties, and their suitable recovery processes.
biomass production  multicriteria model  ELECTRE III  combustion  oxygen enrichment  lowrank coal char  char oxidation  reaction kinetics  salty food waste  FTIR  pyrolysis  biochar  NaCl  hydrothermal carbonization  anaerobic digestion  poultry slaughterhouse  sludge cake  energy recovery efficiency  gasification  kinetic model  active site  chemisorption  hydrothermal carbonization (HTC)  Chinese reed  biocrude  biochar  high heating value (HHV)  biochar  steam  gasification  chemical speciation  AAEMs  underground coal gasification  ash layer  effective diffusion coefficient  internal diffusion resistance  pyrolysis  hydrothermal carbonization  biochar engineering  porosity  nutrients  polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)  nitrogen  biomass  amino acid  pyrrole  NOx  pyrolysis  grape marc  kinetic models  characterization  pyrolysis  Texaco pilot plant  reactor modelling  ash fusion temperature (AFT)  melting phenomenon  food waste compost  sawdust  pyrolysis  biochar  thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)  calorific value  biogas purification  coconut shells  biomass valorization  textural characterization  adsorption isotherms  breakthrough curves  olive mill solid wastes (OMSWs)  fixed bed combustor  pellets  combustion parameters  gaseous emissions  waste wood  interactions  interferences  partial combustion reaction in gasification  Boudouard reaction in gasification  MTDATA  biomass  steam gasification  kinetics  pyrolysis conditions  thermogravimetric analysis  characteristic time analysis  biomass  combustion  thermogravimetric analysis  kinetic parameters  thermal characteristics  food waste  foodwaste biochar  pyrolysis  NaCl template  desalination  biochar  ash from biomass  giant miscanthus  fertilisation  CO2 adsorption  CH4 adsorption  biomass  activated carbon  n/a
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Neutrosophy (1995) is a new branch of philosophy that studies triads of the form (,
generalized aggregation operators  interval neutrosophic set (INS)  multiattribute decision making (MADM)  Choquet integral  fuzzy measure  clustering algorithm  neutrosophic association rule  data mining  neutrosophic sets  big data  analytic hierarchy process (AHP)  SWOT analysis  multicriteria decisionmaking (MCDM) techniques  neutrosophic set theory  neutrosophic clustering  image segmentation  neutrosophic cmeans clustering  region growing  dermoscopy  skin cancer  neutosophic extended triplet subgroups  neutrosophic triplet cosets  neutrosophic triplet normal subgroups  neutrosophic triplet quotient groups  shopping mall  photovoltaic plan  decisionmaking trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL)  intervalvalued neutrosophic set  extended ELECTRE III  symmetry  single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS)  neutrosophic multiset (NM)  single valued neutrosophic multiset (SVNM)  cosine measure  multiple attribute decisionmaking  LNGPBM operator  LNGWPBM operator  Linguistic neutrosophic sets  generalized partitioned Bonferroni mean operator  multiple attribute group decisionmaking (MAGDM)  pseudoBCI algebra  hesitant fuzzy set  neutrosophic set  filter  action learning  school administrator  SVM  neutrosophic classification  neutrosophic set  soft set  totally dependentneutrosophic set  totally dependentneutrosophic soft set  generalized De Morgan algebra  complex neutrosophic set  complex neutrosophic graph  fuzzy graph  matrix representation  neutrosophic triplet groups  semigroup  semineutrosophic triplets  classical group of neutrosophic triplets  Ssemigroup of neutrosophic triplets  pseudo primitive elements  neutrosophic sets (NSs)  interval neutrosophic numbers (INNs)  exponential operational laws of interval neutrosophic numbers  interval neutrosophic weighted exponential aggregation (INWEA) operator  multiple attribute decision making (MADM)  typhoon disaster evaluation  simplified neutrosophic linguistic numbers  cloud model  Maclaurin symmetric mean  multicriteria decisionmaking  neutrosophy  DSmT  decisionmaking algorithms  robotic dexterous hands  grasping configurations  grasp type  generalized group  neutrosophic triplet set  neutrosophic triplet group  group  neutrosophic cubic set  neutrosophic cubic graphs  applications of neutrosophic cubic graphs  singlevalued neutrosophic multisets  medical diagnosis  probabilistic rough sets over two universes  threeway decisions  similarity measures  neutrosophic cubic set  decisionmaking  soft sets  support soft sets  interval valued neutrosophic support soft sets  sustainable supplier selection problems (SSSPs)  analytic network process  interdependency of criteria  TOPSIS  neutrosophic set  2inglevalued neutrosophic set  Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS)  integrated weight  maximizing deviation  multiattribute decisionmaking (MADM)  neutrosophic triplet set (NTS)  partial metric spaces (PMS)  fixed point theory (FPT)  neutrosophic triplet  quasi neutrosophic triplet loop  quasi neutrosophic triplet group  BEalgebra  CIalgebra  fuzzy time series  forecasting  twofactor fuzzy logical relationship  multivalued neutrosophic set  Hamming distance  neutrosophic set  prioritized operator  Muirhead mean  multicriteria decisionmaking  aggregation operators  dual aggregation operators  neutrosophic triplet group (NTG)  NTsubgroup  homomorphism theorem  weak commutative neutrosophic triplet group  neutrosophic rough set  MGNRS  dual domains  inclusion relation  decisionmaking  neutromonomorphism  neutroepimorphism  neutroautomorphism  fundamental neutrohomomorphism theorem  first neutroisomorphism theorem  and second neutroisomorphism theorem  linear and nonlinear neutrosophic number  deneutrosophication methods  neutrosophic set  bipolar fuzzy set  neutrosophic bipolar fuzzy set  neutrosophic bipolar fuzzy weighted averaging operator  similarity measure  algorithm  multiple attribute decision making problem  neutrosophic duplets  semigroup  neutrosophic triplet groups  neutrosophic set  fault diagnosis  normal distribution  defuzzification  simplified neutrosophic weighted averaging operator  (commutative) ideal  generalized neutrosophic set  generalized neutrosophic ideal  commutative generalized neutrosophic ideal  linguistic neutrosophic sets  multicriteria group decisionmaking  power aggregation operator  extended TOPSIS method  probabilistic singlevalued (interval) neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set  multiattribute decision making  aggregation operator  quasigroup  loop  BCIalgebra  BolMoufang  quasi neutrosophic loops  Fenyves identities  Gmetric  neutrosophic Gmetric  neutrosophic sets  clustering  neutrosophic big data  neutrosophic logic  aggregation operator  complement  intersection  membership  neutrosophic soft set  NC power dual MM operator (NCPDMM) operator  NCPMM operator  MADM  MM operator  Neutrosophic cubic sets  PA operator  interval neutrosophic sets  Bonferroni mean  power operator  multiattribute decision making (MADM)  multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM)  2tuple linguistic neutrosophic sets (2TLNSs)  TODIM model  2TLNNs TODIM method  construction project  MCGDM problems  triangular fuzzy neutrosophic sets (TFNSs)  VIKOR model  TFNNs VIKOR method  potential evaluation  emerging technology commercialization  Qlinguistic neutrosophic variable set  vector similarity measure  cosine measure  Dice measure  Jaccard measure  decision making  inclusion relation  neutrosophic rough set  multiattribute group decisionmaking (MAGDM)  multigranulation neutrosophic rough set (MNRS)  two universes  single valued trapezoidal neutrosophic number  multicriteria group decision making  possibility degree  power aggregation operators  LAsemihypergroups  neutrosophic triplet set  neutrohomomorphism  algorithm  decision making  expert set  generalized neutrosophic set  neutrosophic sets  Qneutrosophic  soft sets  simplified neutrosophic sets (SNSs)  interval number  dependent degree  multicriteria group decisionmaking (MCGDM)  computability  oracle Turing machines  neutrosophic sets  neutrosophic logic  recursive enumerability  oracle computation  criterion functions  neutrosophic computation  neutrosophic logic  quantum computation  computation  logic
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Neutrosophy (1995) is a new branch of philosophy that studies triads of the form (,
generalized aggregation operators  interval neutrosophic set (INS)  multiattribute decision making (MADM)  Choquet integral  fuzzy measure  clustering algorithm  neutrosophic association rule  data mining  neutrosophic sets  big data  analytic hierarchy process (AHP)  SWOT analysis  multicriteria decisionmaking (MCDM) techniques  neutrosophic set theory  neutrosophic clustering  image segmentation  neutrosophic cmeans clustering  region growing  dermoscopy  skin cancer  neutosophic extended triplet subgroups  neutrosophic triplet cosets  neutrosophic triplet normal subgroups  neutrosophic triplet quotient groups  shopping mall  photovoltaic plan  decisionmaking trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL)  intervalvalued neutrosophic set  extended ELECTRE III  symmetry  single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS)  neutrosophic multiset (NM)  single valued neutrosophic multiset (SVNM)  cosine measure  multiple attribute decisionmaking  LNGPBM operator  LNGWPBM operator  Linguistic neutrosophic sets  generalized partitioned Bonferroni mean operator  multiple attribute group decisionmaking (MAGDM)  pseudoBCI algebra  hesitant fuzzy set  neutrosophic set  filter  action learning  school administrator  SVM  neutrosophic classification  neutrosophic set  soft set  totally dependentneutrosophic set  totally dependentneutrosophic soft set  generalized De Morgan algebra  complex neutrosophic set  complex neutrosophic graph  fuzzy graph  matrix representation  neutrosophic triplet groups  semigroup  semineutrosophic triplets  classical group of neutrosophic triplets  Ssemigroup of neutrosophic triplets  pseudo primitive elements  neutrosophic sets (NSs)  interval neutrosophic numbers (INNs)  exponential operational laws of interval neutrosophic numbers  interval neutrosophic weighted exponential aggregation (INWEA) operator  multiple attribute decision making (MADM)  typhoon disaster evaluation  simplified neutrosophic linguistic numbers  cloud model  Maclaurin symmetric mean  multicriteria decisionmaking  neutrosophy  DSmT  decisionmaking algorithms  robotic dexterous hands  grasping configurations  grasp type  generalized group  neutrosophic triplet set  neutrosophic triplet group  group  neutrosophic cubic set  neutrosophic cubic graphs  applications of neutrosophic cubic graphs  singlevalued neutrosophic multisets  medical diagnosis  probabilistic rough sets over two universes  threeway decisions  similarity measures  neutrosophic cubic set  decisionmaking  soft sets  support soft sets  interval valued neutrosophic support soft sets  sustainable supplier selection problems (SSSPs)  analytic network process  interdependency of criteria  TOPSIS  neutrosophic set  2inglevalued neutrosophic set  Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS)  integrated weight  maximizing deviation  multiattribute decisionmaking (MADM)  neutrosophic triplet set (NTS)  partial metric spaces (PMS)  fixed point theory (FPT)  neutrosophic triplet  quasi neutrosophic triplet loop  quasi neutrosophic triplet group  BEalgebra  CIalgebra  fuzzy time series  forecasting  twofactor fuzzy logical relationship  multivalued neutrosophic set  Hamming distance  neutrosophic set  prioritized operator  Muirhead mean  multicriteria decisionmaking  aggregation operators  dual aggregation operators  neutrosophic triplet group (NTG)  NTsubgroup  homomorphism theorem  weak commutative neutrosophic triplet group  neutrosophic rough set  MGNRS  dual domains  inclusion relation  decisionmaking  neutromonomorphism  neutroepimorphism  neutroautomorphism  fundamental neutrohomomorphism theorem  first neutroisomorphism theorem  and second neutroisomorphism theorem  linear and nonlinear neutrosophic number  deneutrosophication methods  neutrosophic set  bipolar fuzzy set  neutrosophic bipolar fuzzy set  neutrosophic bipolar fuzzy weighted averaging operator  similarity measure  algorithm  multiple attribute decision making problem  neutrosophic duplets  semigroup  neutrosophic triplet groups  neutrosophic set  fault diagnosis  normal distribution  defuzzification  simplified neutrosophic weighted averaging operator  (commutative) ideal  generalized neutrosophic set  generalized neutrosophic ideal  commutative generalized neutrosophic ideal  linguistic neutrosophic sets  multicriteria group decisionmaking  power aggregation operator  extended TOPSIS method  probabilistic singlevalued (interval) neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set  multiattribute decision making  aggregation operator  quasigroup  loop  BCIalgebra  BolMoufang  quasi neutrosophic loops  Fenyves identities  Gmetric  neutrosophic Gmetric  neutrosophic sets  clustering  neutrosophic big data  neutrosophic logic  aggregation operator  complement  intersection  membership  neutrosophic soft set  NC power dual MM operator (NCPDMM) operator  NCPMM operator  MADM  MM operator  Neutrosophic cubic sets  PA operator  interval neutrosophic sets  Bonferroni mean  power operator  multiattribute decision making (MADM)  multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM)  2tuple linguistic neutrosophic sets (2TLNSs)  TODIM model  2TLNNs TODIM method  construction project  MCGDM problems  triangular fuzzy neutrosophic sets (TFNSs)  VIKOR model  TFNNs VIKOR method  potential evaluation  emerging technology commercialization  Qlinguistic neutrosophic variable set  vector similarity measure  cosine measure  Dice measure  Jaccard measure  decision making  inclusion relation  neutrosophic rough set  multiattribute group decisionmaking (MAGDM)  multigranulation neutrosophic rough set (MNRS)  two universes  single valued trapezoidal neutrosophic number  multicriteria group decision making  possibility degree  power aggregation operators  LAsemihypergroups  neutrosophic triplet set  neutrohomomorphism  algorithm  decision making  expert set  generalized neutrosophic set  neutrosophic sets  Qneutrosophic  soft sets  simplified neutrosophic sets (SNSs)  interval number  dependent degree  multicriteria group decisionmaking (MCGDM)  computability  oracle Turing machines  neutrosophic sets  neutrosophic logic  recursive enumerability  oracle computation  criterion functions  neutrosophic computation  neutrosophic logic  quantum computation  computation  logic  n/a
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