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Estuary

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ISBN: 9789535138792 9789535138808 9789535140078 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.5772/66262 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography --- Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Estuaries are regarded among the most ecologically threatened ecosystems worldwide largely due to poor land use practices within their catchment areas, freshwater abstraction, coastal development, and resource exploitation. Moreover, these systems act as repositories for various anthropogenic contaminants. The establishment and successful implementation of conservation and management strategies are critically dependent on understanding the links among physicochemical, hydrological, and biological variables within these systems. The book provides a comprehensive overview of selected topics including modeling of water exchange between estuaries and the ocean, sediment geochemistry and mangrove health, climate variability and hydrology, and pesticides in estuaries and ecosystem functioning for various estuaries including permanently open, mangrove, and intermittently open/closed systems in both the northern and the southern hemispheres.

Radio Occultation Method for Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Ionosphere

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ISBN: 9789537619602 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.5772/151 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
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The book is devoted to radio occultation (RO) remote sensing of the earth’s atmosphere and ionosphere as a global method of monitoring. This technique used the radio links satellite-to-satellite when a satellite-receiver setting or rising behind the earth’s atmosphere is relative to a satellite - emitter of radio waves. During setting the radio ray perigee moves through the ionosphere and ionosphere. Atmospheric and ionospheric effects arise in most cases owing to influence of a zone near the radio ray perigee and cause significant variations of the amplitude, phase, and frequency of the radio waves. These variations enable determination of the altitude profiles of temperature, pressure, refractivity, density, humidity and turbulence in the atmosphere, distribution of the electron density in the ionosphere, and the wave phenomena at different altitudes with a global coverage. The aim of this book consists of the systematic description of the different approaches, results of investigation and perspectives of the RO remote sensing as a tool for investigations of the atmosphere and ionosphere.

Tectonics

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ISBN: 9789533075457 Year: Pages: 372 DOI: 10.5772/567 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
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The term tectonics refers to the study dealing with the forces and displacements that have operated to create structures within the lithosphere. The deformations affecting the Earth's crust are result of the release and the redistribution of energy from Earth's core. The concept of plate tectonics is the chief working principle. Tectonics has application to lunar and planetary studies, whether or not those bodies have active tectonic plate systems. Petroleum and mineral prospecting uses this branch of knowledge as guide. The present book is restricted to the structure and evolution of the terrestrial lithosphere with dominant emphasis on the continents. Thirteen original scientific contributions highlight most recent developments in seven relevant domains: Gondwana history, the tectonics of Europe and the Near East; the tectonics of Siberia; the tectonics of China and its neighbourhood; advanced concepts on plate tectonics are discussed in two articles; in the frame of neotectonics, two investigation techniques are examined; finally, the relation between tectonics and petroleum researches is illustrated in one chapter.

Sediment Transport

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ISBN: 9789533071893 Year: Pages: 348 DOI: 10.5772/647 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Sediment transport is a book that covers a wide variety of subject matters. It combines the personal and professional experience of the authors on solid particles transport and related problems, whose expertise is focused in aqueous systems and in laboratory flumes. This includes a series of chapters on hydrodynamics and their relationship with sediment transport and morphological development. The different contributions deal with issues such as the sediment transport modeling; sediment dynamics in stream confluence or river diversion, in meandering channels, at interconnected tidal channels system; changes in sediment transport under fine materials, cohesive materials and ice cover; environmental remediation of contaminated fine sediments. This is an invaluable interdisciplinary textbook and an important contribution to the sediment transport field. I strongly recommend this textbook to those in charge of conducting research on engineering issues or wishing to deal with equally important scientific problems.

New Frontiers in Tectonic Research - General Problems, Sedimentary Basins and Island Arcs

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ISBN: 9789533075952 Year: Pages: 368 DOI: 10.5772/753 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
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This book is devoted to different aspects of tectonic research. Syntheses of recent and earlier works, combined with new results and interpretations, are presented in this book for diverse tectonic settings. Most of the chapters include up-to-date material of detailed geological investigations, often combined with geophysical data, which can help understand more clearly the essence of mechanisms of different tectonic processes. Some chapters are dedicated to general problems of tectonics. Another block of chapters is devoted to sedimentary basins and special attention in this book is given to tectonic processes on active plate margins.

New Frontiers in Tectonic Research - At the Midst of Plate Convergence

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ISBN: 9789533075945 Year: Pages: 366 DOI: 10.5772/1766 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
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Ocean closure involves a variety of converging tectonic processes that reshape shrinking basins, their adjacent margins and the entire earth underneath. Following continental breakup, margin formation and sediment accumulation, tectonics normally relaxes and the margins become passive for millions of years. However, when final convergence is at the gate, the passive days of any ocean and its margins are over or soon will be. The fate of the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf is seemingly known beforehand, as they are nestled in the midst of Africa-Arabia plate convergence with Eurasia. Over millions of years through the Cenozoic era they progressively shriveled, leaving only a glimpse of the Tethys Ocean. Eventually, the basins will adhere to the Alpine-Himalaya orogen and dissipate. This book focuses on a unique stage in the ocean closure process, when significant convergence already induced major deformations, yet the inter-plate basins and margins still record the geological history.

Climate Change - Research and Technology for Adaptation and Mitigation

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789533076218 Year: Pages: 504 DOI: 10.5772/1862 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
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This book provides an interdisciplinary view of how to prepare the ecological and socio-economic systems to the reality of climate change. Scientifically sound tools are needed to predict its effects on regional, rather than global, scales, as it is the level at which socio-economic plans are designed and natural ecosystem reacts. The first section of this book describes a series of methods and models to downscale the global predictions of climate change, estimate its effects on biophysical systems and monitor the changes as they occur. To reduce the magnitude of these changes, new ways of economic activity must be implemented. The second section of this book explores different options to reduce greenhouse emissions from activities such as forestry, industry and urban development. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that climate change can be minimized, but not avoided, and therefore the socio-economic systems around the world will have to adapt to the new conditions to reduce the adverse impacts to the minimum. The last section of this book explores some options for adaptation.

Climate Change - Socioeconomic Effects

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789533074115 Year: Pages: 470 DOI: 10.5772/1511 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
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This book shows some of the socio-economic impacts of climate change according to different estimates of the current or estimated global warming. A series of scientific and experimental research projects explore the impacts of climate change and browse the techniques to evaluate the related impacts. These 23 chapters provide a good overview of the different changes impacts that already have been detected in several regions of the world. They are part of an introduction to the researches being done around the globe in connection with this topic. However, climate change is not just an academic issue important only to scientists and environmentalists; it also has direct implications on various ecosystems and technologies.

Climate Change - Geophysical Foundations and Ecological Effects

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789533074191 Year: Pages: 536 DOI: 10.5772/915 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
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This book offers an interdisciplinary view of the biophysical issues related to climate change. Climate change is a phenomenon by which the long-term averages of weather events (i.e. temperature, precipitation, wind speed, etc.) that define the climate of a region are not constant but change over time. There have been a series of past periods of climatic change, registered in historical or paleoecological records. In the first section of this book, a series of state-of-the-art research projects explore the biophysical causes for climate change and the techniques currently being used and developed for its detection in several regions of the world. The second section of the book explores the effects that have been reported already on the flora and fauna in different ecosystems around the globe. Among them, the ecosystems and landscapes in arctic and alpine regions are expected to be among the most affected by the change in climate, as they will suffer the more intense changes. The final section of this book explores in detail those issues.

Global Warming Impacts - Case Studies on the Economy, Human Health, and on Urban and Natural Environments

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ISBN: 9789533077857 Year: Pages: 292 DOI: 10.5772/1935 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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This book addresses the theme of the impacts of global warming on different specific fields, ranging from the regional and global economy, to agriculture, human health, urban areas, land vegetation, marine areas and mangroves. Despite the volume of scientific work that has been undertaken in relation to each of each of these issues, the study of the impacts of global warming upon them is a relatively recent and unexplored topic. The chapters of this book offer a broad overview of potential applications of global warming science. As this science continues to evolve, confirm and reject study hypotheses, it is hoped that this book will stimulate further developments in relation to the impacts of changes in the global climate.

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