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Cavendish: The Experimental Life

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Book Series: Studies 7: Max Planck Research Library in the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561065 Year: Pages: 596 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 16:09:07
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Two gifted eighteenth-century Londoners, Charles Cavendish and his painfully preeminent son Henry were descendants of paired revolutions, one political and one scientific. Scions of a powerful revolutionary family, they gave an original turn to the duty of public service that attached to their social rank. The English aristocracy knew one of its finest hours when Henry Cavendish gently laid his delicate weights in the scales of the first great precision balance of the century. For this action to happen, it took two generations and two kinds of invention, one in social forms and the other in scientific methods. This joint biography of father and son tells how it came to pass. Henry Cavendish is best known for his researches in chemistry, electricity, and heat, but in truth he worked in every part of physical science, bringing to it his unique combination of experimental precision and mathematical penetration. His accomplishment is likened to the highest example: since the death of Newton, Humphry Davy wrote, England has suffered "no scientific loss so great as that of Cavendish." Through inheritance he became immensely rich. Regarding intellect and fortune, he is called "the wisest of the rich and the richest of the wise." In his exclusive devotion to science, he is compared with "the most austere anchorites," who were "not more faithful to their vows." With reference to his legendary shyness, he is described as a man of "most reserved disposition," of a "degree bordering on disease." He was, to be sure, all of these things: one of the best scientists of his time, one of the richest men in the kingdom, a member of one of the politically most influential aristocratic families, a scientific fanatic, and a person of extraordinary peculiarities. This biography, a major revision of the original published in 1999, offers an enlarged understanding of the eighteenth century world of science and a reevaluation both of the scientific genius and of the remarkable personality of Henry Cavendish. It is a comprehensive study of science, family, and society in the eighteenth century.

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MPRL --- Edition Open Access

Spatial Thinking and External Representation: Towards a Historical Epistemology of Space

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Book Series: Studies 8: Max Planck Research Library in the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561089 Year: Pages: 219 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 13:00:16
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Spatial knowledge takes different forms in different societies and at different times in history depending on the spatial experiences accounted for and the available means for the external representation of knowledge. The volume presents and analyses manifestations of spatial thinking in the language and practices of recent non-literate societies, in the administrative institutions of early civilizations, in discursive contexts of ancient Greece and China, in early modern natural philosophy and metaphysics, and in twentieth-century physics, and discusses their historical and structural relations.

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MPRL --- Edition Open Access

Algebra in Cuneiform: Introduction to an Old Babylonian Geometrical Technique

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Book Series: Textbooks 2: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561157 Year: Pages: 156 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-21 11:59:57
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This textbook analyzes a number of texts in “conformal translation,” that is, a translation in which the same Babylonian term is always translated in the same way and, more importantly, in which different terms are always translated differently. Appendixes are provided for readers who are familiar with basic Assyriology but otherwise philological details are avoided. All of these texts are from the second half of the Old Babylonian period, that is, 1800–1600 BCE. It is indeed during this period that the “algebraic” discipline, and Babylonian mathematics in general, culminates. Even though a few texts from the late period show some similarities with what comes from the Old Babylonian period, they are but remnants. Beyond analyzing texts, the book gives a general characterization of the kind of mathematics involved, and locates it within the context of the Old Babylonian scribe school and its particular culture. Finally, it describes the origin of the discipline and its impact in later mathematics, not least Euclid’s geometry and genuine algebra as created in medieval Islam and taken over in European medieval and Renaissance mathematics.

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MPRL --- Edition Open Access

The History of Science in a World of Readers

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Book Series: Studies 11: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561423 Year: Pages: 189 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-14 11:47:01
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What role should historians of science, technology, and medicine have in communicating their own body of literature - its methods and concerns - across linguistic boundaries? This anthology is a proactive response to this question. As the West and the East become ever more closely related through travel, trade, and - not least - the globalization of knowledge, the seven essays in this volume should stimulate new engagements between English and Chinese readers on the centrality of science, technology, and medicine for our histories and our future. A wider selection of such influential literature, published in English since 1990, has been translated into Chinese and published in China in a companion volume. The series Studies of the Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge is dedicated to key subjects in the history and development of knowledge, bringing together perspectives from different fields and combining source-based empirical research with theoretically guided approaches. Studies typically present working group volumes with integrative approaches. The volumes are available both as print-on-demand books and as open-access publications on the Internet. The material is freely accessible online at www.edition-open-access.de.

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MPRL --- Edition Open Access

Pseudo-Proklos’ Sphaera: Die Sphaera-Gattung im 16. Jahrhundert

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Book Series: Sources 12: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561348 Year: Pages: 302 Language: Deutsch
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-14 11:55:18
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Pseudo-Proklos’ Sphaera ist eine griechische Einführung in die Astronomie, die ursprünglich von dem Stoiker Geminos aus dem 1. Jahrhundert v. Chr. stammt, jedoch im späten 15. Jahrhundert dem Neoplatoniker Proklos zugeschrieben wurde. Am Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts erschienen Übersetzungen und Kommentare des Textes in 23 Handschriften und 92 Druckausgaben verschiedener Sprachen. Obwohl zu dieser Zeit bekannt war, dass der Text nicht zu Proklos gehört, wurde er weiterhin in ganz Europa unterrichtet und übersetzt. Die weite Verbreitung des Textes unterstreicht nicht nur die Bekanntheit des Namens Proklos, sondern auch die große Bedeutung seines Inhalts. Dieses Buch kontrastiert die Sphaera des Pseudo-Proklos mit dem aus dem 13. Jahrhundert stammenden astronomischen Standardlehrbuch für Astronomie - der Sphaera des Johannes de Sacrobosco. Die Verwendung der Sphaera fand bevorzugt an europäischen Universitäten, Hochschulen und Schulen statt, weil sie kürzer und elementarer war als der Text des Sacrobosco und weil die einfache griechische Syntax auch zum Unter-richten der griechischen Sprache verwendet werden konnte. Als griechisches Lehrbuch wurde die Sphaera zusammen mit verschiedenen Textgattungen wie Abhandlungen und Gedichten zur Astronomie gedruckt und insbesondere in humanistischen Zentren um Erasmus und Melanchthon verbreitet. Diese Textausgabe von Pseudo-Proklos Sphaera enthält eine detaillierte Beschreibung des Inhalts, verfolgt ihre Verbreitung und stellt sie in einen zeitlichen Zusammenhang. Der Anhang enthält Transkriptionen und Facsimiles der ältesten griechischen Handschrift, des ältesten griechischen-lateinischen Druckes, eine deutsche Übersetzung des griechischen Textes und Paraphrasen der lateinischen frühneuzeitlichen Kommentare. Die Edition Open Sources (EOS) setzt ein neues Paradigma im Verlagswesen im Hin-blick auf wissenschaftliche Publikationen von Quellen um. Die herausgegebenen Werke sind in unterschiedlichen Formaten online frei zugänglich, und auch in gedruckter Form erhältlich. EOS-Publikationen behandeln wichtige Originalquellen zur Geschichte und Entwicklung des Wissens, die als Faksimile und bearbeitete Neuausgabe eines Textes, teilweise auch als Übersetzung bereitgestellt und mit einer Einführung in Autor, Werk und Entstehungszeit versehen werden. Bei den Quellen kann es sich um historische Bücher, Manuskripte, Dokumente oder andere Materialien handeln, die ansonsten schwer zugänglich sind. EOS ist eine Zusammenarbeit der University of Oklahoma Libraries, des Department for the History of Science der University of Oklahoma sowie des Max Planck-Instituts für Wissenschaftsgeschichte.

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MPRL --- Edition Open Access

Photo-Objects: On the Materiality of Photographs and Photo Archives

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Book Series: Studies 12: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561393 Year: Pages: 326 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-14 11:51:27
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Photographs are not simply images but also historically shaped three-dimensional objects. They hold a physical presence, bear traces of handling and use, and circulate in social, political, and institutional networks. Beyond their visual content, they are increasingly acknowledged as material "actors", not only indexically representing the objects they depict, but also playing a crucial role in the processes of knowledge-making within scientific practices. This has a historical dimension: most scientific disciplines rapidly adopted photography as an important research tool. The various material qualities of photographs thereby afforded certain types of uses in those disciplines. Specialized photo archives were founded as interfaces of technology and science and as laboratories for scientific thought. This book highlights some recent approaches to photo-objects and photo archives as parts of a dynamic and material system of knowledge. Taking photographic materiality as its premise, it analyzes the epistemological potential of analog and digital photographs and photo archives in the humanities and sciences. Issues range from the circulation and distribution of photographs, the construction of disciplinary methods through the handling and use of photographs, the formation and transformation of a canon through photography and respective hierarchies of value, to the arrangement, classification, and working processes in photo archives and other institutions. The series Studies of the Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge is dedicated to key subjects in the history and development of knowledge. It brings together perspectives from different fields and combines source-based empirical research with theoretically guided approaches. Studies typically present collaborative working group volumes with integrative approaches to research. The volumes are available both as print-on-demand books and as open-access publications. The material is freely accessible online at www.mprl-series.mpg.de.

Alvarus Thomas und sein Liber de triplici motu. Band I: Naturphilosophie an der Pariser Artistenfakultät

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Book Series: Sources 7: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561096 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 671 Language: German
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 14:37:16
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Der Liber de triplici motu ist ein Werk von Alvarus Thomas aus dem Jahr 1509. Das Buch repräsentiert einen letzten Höhepunkt der scholastischen Auseinandersetzung mit der aristotelischen Bewegungslehre vor der Entstehung der klassischen Mechanik, an dem man die entscheidenden Stadien der Transformation des Bewegungsbegriffs seit der Antike studieren kann. Von zukunftsweisender Bedeutung ist darin die mathematische Proportionslehre und die damit verbundene Quantifizierung von naturphilosophischen Qualitäten nach den Methoden der Oxforder Kalkulatoren wie zum Beispiel die Quantifizierung der Geschwindigkeit einer Bewegung. Aus dem Inhalt und der Strukturierung des Werks sowie dem Leben von Alvarus Thomas lassen sich die Zusammenhänge zwischen Formen und Inhalten der Wissensvermittlung und Wissensproduktion, zwischen wissenschaftlicher Forschung und wissenschaftlicher Sozialisation für das frühe 16. Jahrhundert erhellen. Dieser erste Band zu Alvarus Thomas und seinem Liber de triplici motu bietet zudem einen strukturierten Abriss des Werks, einen Glossar zum mathematischen und naturphilosophischen Vokabular sowie weiteres bibliographisches Material. Die Edition Open Sources (EOS) setzt ein neues Paradigma im Verlagswesen im Hinblick auf wissenschaftliche Publikationen von Quellen um. Die herausgegebenen Werke sind in unterschiedlichen Formaten online frei zugänglich, und auch in gedruckter Form erhältlich. EOS-Publikationen behandeln wichtige Originalquellen zur Geschichte und Entwicklung des Wissens, die als Faksimile und bearbeitete Neuausgabe eines Textes, teilweise auch als Übersetzung bereitgestellt und mit einer Einführung in Autor, Werk und Entstehungszeit versehen werden. Bei den Quellen kann es sich um historische Bücher, Manuskripte, Dokumente oder andere Materialien handeln, die ansonsten schwer zugänglich sind. EOS ist eine Zusammenarbeit der University of Oklahoma Libraries, des Department for the History of Science der University of Oklahoma sowie des Max-Planck-Instituts für Wissenschaftsgeschichte.

Alvarus Thomas und sein Liber de triplici motu. Band II: Bearbeiteter Text und Faksimile

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Book Series: Sources 8: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561102 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 580 Language: German
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 15:02:38
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Der Liber de triplici motu ist ein Werk von Alvarus Thomas aus dem Jahr 1509. Das Buch repräsentiert einen letzten Höhepunkt der scholastischen Auseinandersetzung mit der aristotelischen Bewegungslehre vor der Entstehung der klassischen Mechanik, an dem man die entscheidenden Stadien der Transformation des Bewegungsbegriffs seit der Antike studieren kann. Von zukunftsweisender Bedeutung ist darin die mathematische Proportionslehre und die damit verbundene Quantifizierung von naturphilosophischen Qualitäten nach den Methoden der Oxforder Kalkulatoren wie zum Beispiel die Quantifizierung der Geschwindigkeit einer Bewegung. Der Liber de triplici motu gilt unter Forschern zur Geschichte der Naturphilosophie und der Mathematik der Frühen Neuzeit wegen seiner ausufernden Abkürzungen als schwer zu lesendes Werk. Dieser zweite Band zu Alvarus Thomas und seinem Liber de triplici motu stellt daher neben einem Faksimile den vollständigen Text in einer überarbeiteten Form zur Verfügung. Die Edition Open Sources (EOS) setzt ein neues Paradigma im Verlagswesen im Hinblick auf wissenschaftliche Publikationen von Quellen um. Die herausgegebenen Werke sind in unterschiedlichen Formaten online frei zugänglich, und auch in gedruckter Form erhältlich. EOS-Publikationen behandeln wichtige Originalquellen zur Geschichte und Entwicklung des Wissens, die als Faksimile und bearbeitete Neuausgabe eines Textes, teilweise auch als Übersetzung bereitgestellt und mit einer Einführung in Autor, Werk und Entstehungszeit versehen werden. Bei den Quellen kann es sich um historische Bücher, Manuskripte, Dokumente oder andere Materialien handeln, die ansonsten schwer zugänglich sind. EOS ist eine Zusammenarbeit der University of Oklahoma Libraries, des Department for the History of Science der University of Oklahoma sowie des Max-Planck-Instituts für Wissenschaftsgeschichte.

Theory, Practice, and Nature In-between: Antonio Vallisneri's 'Primi Itineris Specimen'

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Book Series: Sources 9: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561324 Year: Pages: 369 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-19 14:28:52
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In the summer of 1704, Antonio Vallisneri (1661–1730), the preeminent Italian physician and natural philosopher of his time, traveled with a “daring soul” and “trembling feet” across the “silent horrors” of the northern Apennines: down the hills south of Reggio Emilia to northern Tuscany and the western edge of his native land, the Province of Garfagnana. He then wrote a report of this adventure, the Primi Itineris per Montes Specimen Physico-Medicum (“Physico-medical example of a first journey through the mountains"), and sent it to the Royal Society of London, hoping for its publication in Philosophical Transactions. Unfortunately this did not happen and the manuscript disappeared from sight. The original draft, however, survived in the State Archive of the Italian city of Reggio Emilia where it was found in 2009. With its exceptional array of geological, medical, geographical, technical, ethnographic, and historical data, the Primi Itineris Specimen is one of the earliest and most well-documented attempts to define a systematic approach to field research. Its frantically reworked pages and anxious marginal notes offer a new and precious opportunity to understand why and how experimental data and theories in the early modern period interacted and shaped the development of many crucial debates. These include the discovering of deep-time, the comprehension of geological phenomena (such as the hydrologic cycle and the origin of mountains and fossils), the perception of man’s place in nature, the constant search for new therapeutics, the tormented and charming relation between science and religion.

Culture and Cognition: Essays in Honor of Peter Damerow

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Book Series: Proceedings 11: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561355 Year: Pages: 295
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-14 10:36:04
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Peter Damerow (1939–2011) was a visionary scholar of rare versatility. A key figure in the foundation and early development of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, he contributed to fields as wide-ranging as pedagogy, mathematics, philosophy, psychology, Near Eastern studies, as well as the history of knowledge and science. Through his work and his dynamic personality, he shaped the careers of many scholars worldwide. He was a paragon of the engaged scientist, having great sensitivity for political and social concerns and a perceptiveness that also shaped his scholarship. The present volume attempts to capture the vivacity of his ever-curious mind. It comprises contributions by some of his closest companions, colleagues, and friends, most of which were presented at a workshop held in Peter’s honor at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin in December 19–20, 2013. The contributions are organized in four parts, the first three of which cover some of the areas of Peter’s interests: the origins of writing and mathematics; the history of knowledge and science; and societal concerns and the role of information technologies for the humanities. The last part offers a glimpse at his life and also presents the scope of his scholarship with a bibliography of his writings.

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