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Using Substances to Enhance Performance: A Psychology of Neuroenhancement

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450756 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-075-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Neuroenhancement (NE) is a behavior conceptualized as the use of a potentially psychoactive substance to enhance ones’ already proficient cognitive capacities. Depending on the specific definitions used, prevalence estimates vary greatly between very low 0.3% (for illicit substances) to astonishingly high 89% (for freely available lifestyle substances). These variations indicate that further research and more conceptual and theoretical clarification of the NE construct is dearly needed. The contributions of this research topic aim to do just that. Specific questions addressed are: How prevalent is NE behavior? How can NE research profit from the already more evolved field of social science research on doping in sports? How is NE perceived by the public? What psychological processes and variables play a role in the decision to neuroenhance? A wide array of methodological approaches is used to investigate these questions. The topics contributions range from theoretical to experimental accounts on NE, and they utilize a diverse set of methods ranging from qualitative to neuroscientific approaches. The research presented here represents a first step towards what we have labeled a psychological approach to NE. By addressing the questions above this research topic hopefully advances our understanding of NE behavior. As with every new field of research, new answers always prompt new questions. In light of what we know now about NE, we hope that the findings presented here will be pursued by other researchers in the future. Clearly, the endeavor to understand NE behavior has only just begun.

Investigating Human Nature and Communication through Robots

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450862 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-086-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Computer Science --- General and Civil Engineering --- Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The development of information technology enabled us to exchange more items of information among us no matter how far we are apart from each other. It also changed our way of communication. Various types of robots recently promoted to be sold to general public hint that these robots may further influence our daily life as they physically interact with us and handle objects in environment. We may even recognize a feel of presence similar to that of human beings when we talk to a robot or when a robot takes part in our conversation. The impact will be strong enough for us to think about the meaning of communication. This e-book consists of various studies that examine our communication influenced by robots. Topics include our attitudes toward robot behaviors, designing robots for better communicating with people, and how people can be affected by communicating through robots.

Antibiotic Resistance in Aquatic Systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451319 Year: Pages: 107 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-131-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Rivers, lakes and the ocean receive antibiotic resistance genes from human environments. The aquatic environments are a huge reservoir and exchange stage of antibiotic resistance genes.

Robust automatic transcription of lectures

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ISBN: 9783866443945 Year: Pages: XXVI, 173 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000011992 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Automatic transcription of lectures is becoming an important task. Possible applications can be found in the fields of automatic translation or summarization, information retrieval, digital libraries, education and communication research. Ideally those systems would operate on distant recordings, freeing the presenter from wearing body-mounted microphones. This task, however, is surpassingly difficult, given that the speech signal is severely degraded by background noise and reverberation.

Color Image Processing

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ISBN: 9783038429579 9783038429586 Year: Pages: X, 228 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-22 12:58:28
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What we call the "color" of an object is the result of a very complicated and not yet fully understood mechanism that involves the interaction between the light reflected by the object surface and the eyes, and the subsequent analysis of the retinal signal by the brain. For these reasons, research into color is intrinsically multidisciplinary and can be conducted from many points of view. The contributions presented in this book reflect this spirit, ranging from rigorous mathematical models of color geometry, to the psychophysical discussion of chromatic visual illusion, passing through state-of-the-art computational models in color enhancement. The idea behind this book is to give the reader an idea of the richness and variety of the research into color, proving it to be one of the most fascinating interdisciplinary research fields in contemporary science.

The Clinical and Ethical Practice of Neuromodulation - Deep Brain Stimulation and Beyond

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453733 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-373-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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euromodulation is among the fastest-growing areas of medicine, involving many diverse specialties and affecting hundreds of thousands of patients with numerous disorders worldwide. It can briefly be described as the science of how electrical, chemical, and mechanical interventions can modulate the nervous system function. A prominent example of neuromodulation is deep brain stimulation (DBS), an intervention that reflects a fundamental shift in the understanding of neurological and psychiatric diseases: namely as resulting from a dysfunctional activity pattern in a defined neuronal network that can be normalized by targeted stimulation. The application of DBS has grown remarkably and more than 130,000 patients worldwide have obtained a DBS intervention in the past 30 years—most of them for treating movement disorders. This Frontiers Research Topics provides an overview on the current discussion beyond basic research in DBS and other brain stimulation technologies. Researchers from various disciplines, who are working on broader clinical, ethical and social issues related to DBS and related neuromodulation technologies, have contributed to this research topic.

Photonic crystal slabs for low-cost biosensors

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ISBN: 9783866445598 Year: Pages: VI, 165 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000019644 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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Biosensors are devices that utilize biological recognition elements to selectively detect and analyze specific biological and chemical analyte substances. In this work a technology platform for label-free optical biosensors based on surface-functionalized photonic crystal slabs is proposed. Using this technology platform, low-cost solutions for three biotechnical questions are presented.

Beitrag zur Unterwasserbildrestauration

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe Automatische Sichtprüfung und Bildverarbeitung ISSN: 18665934 ISBN: 9783731505792 Year: Volume: 9 Pages: XX, 210 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000058567 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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Underwater images are most often degraded by color shifts, blurring and brightening effects. The presented approach is based on a problem-specific physical model of under water image formation. Thereon, methods of image restoration and image data retrieval are presented, which invert image degradation processes. Hence, it is possible to enhance image quality with model knowledge under different image acquisition conditions.

Advanced Energy Storage Technologies and Their Applications (AESA)

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ISBN: 9783038425441 9783038425458 Year: Pages: 430 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-545-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-26 15:40:34
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The depletion of fossil fuels, the increase of energy demands, and the concerns over climate change are the major driving forces for the development of renewable energy, such as solar energy and wind power. However, the intermittency of renewable energy has hindered the deployment of large-scale intermittent renewable energy, which, therefore, has necessitated the development of advanced large-scale energy storage technologies. The use of large-scale energy storage can effectively improve the efficiency of energy resource utilization, and increase the use of variable renewable resources, the energy access, and the end-use sector electrification (e.g., electrification of transport sector).This Special Issue will provide a platform for presenting the latest research results on the technology development of large-scale energy storage. We welcome research papers about theoretical, methodological and empirical studies, as well as review papers, that provide critical overview on the state of the art of technologies. This special issue is open to all types of energy, such as thermal energy, mechanical energy, electrical energy and chemical energy, using different types of systems, such as phase change materials, batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, compressed air, etc., which are applicable to various types of applications, such as heat and power generation, electrical/hybrid transportation, etc.

Silicon-Based Nanomaterials: Technology and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039210428 / 9783039210435 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-043-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Silicon has been proven to be remarkably resilient as a commercial electronic material. The microelectronics industry has harnessed nanotechnology to continually push the performance limits of silicon devices and integrated circuits. Rather than shrinking its market share, silicon is displacing “competitor” semiconductors in domains such as high-frequency electronics and integrated photonics. There are strong business drivers underlying these trends; however, an important contribution is also being made by research groups worldwide, who are developing new configurations, designs, and applications of silicon-based nanoscale and nanostructured materials. This Special Issue features a selection of papers which illustrate recent advances in the preparation of chemically or physically engineered silicon-based nanostructures and their application in electronic, photonic, and mechanical systems.

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