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Drug Development for Parasite-Induced Diarrheal Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452484 Year: Pages: 177 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-248-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Abstract

One of the top four contributors to the global burden of disease is diarrheal infections. Intestinal parasites are major causes of morbidity and mortality associated with diarrheal diseases in both the developed and developing world. Amebiasis is responsible for 50 million cases of invasive disease and 70,000 deaths annually in the world. Giardiasis has an estimated worldwide prevalence of 280 million cases annually. In developed countries, Giardia lamblia infects about 2% of adults and 6-8% of children. The prevalence of G. lamblia infection is generally higher in developing countries, ranging from 3% to 90%. Furthermore, giardial infections contribute substantially to the 2.5 million annual deaths from diarrheal disease. In Asia, Africa, and Latin America, about 500,000 new giardiasis cases are reported each year. Cryptosporidium accounts for 20% and 9% of diarrheal episodes in children in developing and developed countries, respectively. Infection with Cryptosporidium can be chronic and especially debilitating in immunosuppressed individuals and malnourished children. A recent study to measure disease burden, based on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), found that cryptosporidiosis and amebiasis produce about 10.6 million DALYs. This exceeds the DALYs of any helminth infection currently being targeted by the World Health Organization for preventive chemotherapy. Because of its link with poverty, Giardia and Cryptosporidium were included in the WHO Neglected Diseases Initiative in 2004. E. histolytica, G. lamblia, and C. parvum have been listed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as category B priority biodefense pathogens due to low infectious dose and potential for dissemination through compromised food and water supplies in the United States. Despite the prevalence of amebiasis, giardiasis, and cryptosporidiosis there are no vaccines or prophylactic drugs. The first-line drugs for invasive amebiasis and giardiasis chemotherapy are nitroimidazoles, with the prototype, metronidazole, being the most common drug used worldwide. Metronidazole has been shown to be both mutagenic in a microbiological system and carcinogenic to rodents, and frequently causes gastrointestinal side effects. In spite of the efficacy of nitroimidazole drugs, treatment failures in giardiasis occur in up to 20% of cases. Clinical resistance of G. lamblia to metronidazole is proven and cross resistance is a concern with all commonly used antigiardial drugs. Nitazoxanide, the only FDA-approved drug for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis, is effective in the treatment of immunocompetent patients and partially effective for immunosuppressed patients. Therefore, it is critical to search for more effective drugs to treat amebiasis, giardiasis, and cryptosporidiosis. This Research Topic for Frontiers in Microbiology will explore the recent progress in drug development for parasitic diarrheal diseases. This includes an understanding of drug resistance mechanisms. We would also welcome submissions on the drug development for other diarrheal parasites. We hope that this research topic will include a comprehensive survey of various attempts by the parasitology research community to create effective drugs for these diseases.

Carbonic Anhydrases and Metabolism

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ISBN: 9783038978008 9783038978015 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-801-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes present in all kingdoms of life, as they equilibrate the reaction between three simple but essential chemical species: CO2, bicarbonate, and protons. Discovered more than 80 years ago, in 1933, these enzymes have been extensively investigated due to the biomedical application of their inhibitors, but also because they are an extraordinary example of convergent evolution, with seven genetically distinct CA families that evolved independently in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. CAs are also among the most efficient enzymes known in nature, due to the fact that the uncatalyzed hydration of CO2 is a very slow process and the physiological demands for its conversion to ionic, soluble species is very high. Inhibition of the CAs has pharmacological applications in many fields, such as antiglaucoma, anticonvulsant, antiobesity, and anticancer agents/diagnostic tools, but is also emerging for designing anti-infectives, i.e., antifungal, antibacterial, and antiprotozoan agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mitochondrial CAs are implicated in de novo lipogenesis, and thus selective inhibitors of such enzymes may be useful for the development of new antiobesity drugs. As tumor metabolism is diverse compared to that of normal cells, ultimately, relevant contributions on the role of the tumor-associated isoforms CA IX and XII in these phenomena have been published and the two isoforms have been validated as novel antitumor/antimetastatic drug targets, with antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors in various stages of clinical development. CAs also play a crucial role in other metabolic processes connected with urea biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, and so on, since many carboxylation reactions catalyzed by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase or pyruvate carboxylase use bicarbonate, not CO2, as a substrate. In organisms other than mammals, e.g., plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, CAs are involved in photosynthesis, whereas in many parasites (fungi, protozoa), they are involved in the de novo synthesis of important metabolites (lipids, nucleic acids, etc.). The metabolic effects related to interference with CA activity, however, have been scarcely investigated. The present Special Issue of Metabolites aims to fill this gap by presenting the latest developments in the field of CAs and their role in metabolism.

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