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Topics in Public Health

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ISBN: 9789535121329 9789535142218 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.5772/58484 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Public health has been defined as the efforts of a community that allow a population to remain healthy. This definition is very inclusive, so elements of clinical care, health promotion and many other fields contribute to the larger discipline of public health. The profession has evolved in recent years, with the emphasis in the developed world changing from the hygiene method for control of infectious diseases to a more complex approach to address chronic disease. However, the focus in public health continues to be the population. This book provides a sample of fields that contribute to the public health profession. Its broad approach provides examples of the core fields of public health, including environmental health, epidemiology, biostatistics, health administration, and health behavior.

Trace Elements - Human Health and Environment

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781789236705 9781789236712 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.72339 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Over the last few years, we have witnessed increasing efforts dedicated to the scientific investigation and characteristics of trace elements. Especially in the field of human and animal nutrition, trace elements display a considerably attractive issue for research because they play an essential role in the nutrition of both animals and humans. Aquatic environments contaminated with trace elements are an emerging research area due to the toxicity, abundance, and environmental persistence of trace elements. Accumulation of heavy metals as a class of trace elements in various environments, and the subsequent transition of these elements into the food and feed chain, severely affects human health. The determination of type and concentration of trace elements is regarded as the first and most important step to follow the mechanisms controlling the dispersal and accumulation of trace elements. Element speciation in different media (water, soil, food, plants, coal, biological matter, food, and fodder) is pivotal to assess an element's toxicity, bioavailability, environmental mobility, and biogeochemical performance. Recently, new analytical techniques have been developed, which greatly simplified the quantitation of many trace elements and considerably extended their detection range. In this context, the development of reproducible and accurate techniques for trace element analysis in different media using spectroscopic instrumentation is continuously updated.

Indoor Environment and Health

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ISBN: 9781789843736 9781789843743 9781789846065 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.78905 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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A shelter is one of the physiological needs according to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, which lies at the bottom of the pyramid. People spend around 90% of their time in shelters, or in today's words: buildings. They sleep, eat, work, relax, exercise, play, are born, and die in these buildings. In fact, they ""live"" within walls. Therefore, an indoor environment is crucial for their health and safety. This book, therefore, addresses the issues related to the impact of a sustainable healthy and comfortable indoor environment on the quality of life, and perceives the required indoor conditions for productivity and effectiveness. Thereby, this book is designed to include issues and extensive discussions on thermal comfort, indoor air quality, visual comfort, acoustic comfort, productivity, and indoor health and safety. The concepts of heating, ventilation, air conditioning, external temperature, air pollution, sick building, indoor pollutants, illumination, glare, indoor lighting, daylight, noise, construction materials, sound intensity, and furniture on the indoor environment are described in detail in this book.

Health of People, Health of Planet and Our Responsibility

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783030311254 Year: Pages: 419 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-31125-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Environmental Sciences --- Public Health --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-19 04:54:34
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"This open access book not only describes the challenges of climate disruption, but also presents solutions. The challenges described include air pollution, climate change, extreme weather, and related health impacts that range from heat stress, vector-borne diseases, food and water insecurity and chronic diseases to malnutrition and mental well-being. The influence of humans on climate change has been established through extensive published evidence and reports. However, the connections between climate change, the health of the planet and the impact on human health have not received the same level of attention. Therefore, the global focus on the public health impacts of climate change is a relatively recent area of interest. This focus is timely since scientists have concluded that changes in climate have led to new weather extremes such as floods, storms, heat waves, droughts and fires, in turn leading to more than 600,000 deaths and the displacement of nearly 4 billion people in the last 20 years. Previous work on the health impacts of climate change was limited mostly to epidemiologic approaches and outcomes and focused less on multidisciplinary, multi-faceted collaborations between physical scientists, public health researchers and policy makers. Further, there was little attention paid to faith-based and ethical approaches to the problem. The solutions and actions we explore in this book engage diverse sectors of civil society, faith leadership, and political leadership, all oriented by ethics, advocacy, and policy with a special focus on poor and vulnerable populations. The book highlights areas we think will resonate broadly with the public, faith leaders, researchers and students across disciplines including the humanities, and policy makers."

Ranaviruses: Lethal Pathogens of Ectothermic Vertebrates

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783319137544 9783319137551 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-13755-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Therapeutics --- Biotechnology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-12 15:59:14
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This is the first book on ranaviruses. Ranaviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that cause hemorrhagic disease in amphibians, reptiles, and fish. They have caused mass die-offs of ectothermic vertebrates in wild and captive populations around the globe. There is evidence that this pathogen is emerging and responsible for population declines in certain locations. Considering that amphibians and freshwater turtles are suitable hosts and the most imperiled vertebrate taxa in the world, ranaviruses can have significant impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem function. Additionally, many fish that are raised in aquaculture facilities and traded internationally are suitable hosts; thus, the potential economic impact of ranaviruses is significant. Ranaviruses also serve as a model for replication and gene function of large double-stranded DNA viruses. There is an urgent need to assemble the contemporary information on ranaviruses and provide guidance on how to assess their threats in populations. Through the Global Ranavirus Consortium, 24 experts from six countries were organize to write this volume, the first book on ranaviruses. The book begins with a discussion on the global extent of ranaviruses, case histories of infection and disease in ectothermic vertebrates, and current phylogeny. Basic principles of ranavirus ecology and evolution are covered next, with a focus on host-pathogen interactions and how the virus emerges in its environment. There are two chapters that will discuss the molecular biology of ranaviruses, host response to infection, and the genes responsible for immune system evasion. One chapter establishes standards for testing for infection and diagnosing ranaviral disease. The book ends by providing guidance on how to design ranavirus surveillance studies and analyze data to determine risk, and discussing the role of the Global Ranavirus Consortium in organizing research and outreach activities.

The Brassicaceae Agri-Horticultural and Environmental Perspectives

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456451 Year: Pages: 369 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-645-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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This Frontiers Research Topic "The Brassicaceae- Agri-Horticultural and Environmental Perspectives" is an effort to provide a common platform to agronomists, horticulturists, plant breeders, plant geneticists/molecular biologists, plant physiologists and environmental plant scientists exploring major insights into the role of important members of the plant family Brassicaceae (the mustard family, or Cruciferae) in agri-horticultural and environmental arenas.

Biodiversity and Health in the Face of Climate Change

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783030023188 Year: Pages: 481 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-02318-8 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Environmental Sciences --- Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:12
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This open access book identifies and discusses biodiversity’s contribution to physical, mental and spiritual health and wellbeing. Furthermore, the book identifies the implications of this relationship for nature conservation, public health, landscape architecture and urban planning – and considers the opportunities of nature-based solutions for climate change adaptation. This transdisciplinary book will attract a wide audience interested in biodiversity, ecology, resource management, public health, psychology, urban planning, and landscape architecture. The emphasis is on multiple human health benefits from biodiversity - in particular with respect to the increasing challenge of climate change. This makes the book unique to other books that focus either on biodiversity and physical health or natural environments and mental wellbeing. The book is written as a definitive ‘go-to’ book for those who are new to the field of biodiversity and health.

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Public Health: Progress and Current Challenges

ISBN: 9783038421559 9783038421566 Year: Pages: 316
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 15:26:51
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Over the past decade, coastal and freshwater systems in the U.S. and worldwide have experienced an apparent increase in the frequency and geographic distribution of harmful algal blooms (HABs). These blooms can adversely affect both public health and ecosystem health. Toxin-producing HABs can accumulate in drinking and recreational waters and in foods of aquatic origin such as fish and seafood. Human and animal health risks include exposure to the toxins through eating contaminated food or drinking or swimming in contaminated water. Because of these potential public health risks, several countries and U.S. states have developed monitoring programs and guidelines for drinking and recreational water quality to protect public health. This special issue will present research papers and reviews on various aspects of public health and environmental responses to harmful algal blooms. [...]

Gene Drives at Tipping Points

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783030389345 Year: Pages: 256 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-38934-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Environmental Technology --- Medicine (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-14 09:30:15
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This open access book reports on a pilot project aiming at collecting information on the socio-ecological risks that could arise in the event of an uncontrolled spread of genetically engineered organisms into the environment. The researchers will, for instance, be taking a closer look at genetically engineered oilseed rape, genetically engineered olive flies as well as plants and animals with so-called gene drives. The book mainly adresses researchers.

Radiation Monitoring and Dose Estimation of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

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ISBN: 9784431545828 9784431545835 Year: Pages: 223 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-54583-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Nuclear Physics --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-05 12:56:57
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This book provides comprehensive research findings related to the environmental monitoring of radiation, levels of radioactive nuclides in various environments and dose estimation in residents after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident caused severe environmental contamination with radioactive nuclides. At the beginning of the book, a technical review written by a leading researcher of nuclear reactor technology explains what happened at the power plant. The review is followed by a commentary from a former member of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, providing the reader with easily understandable information about the concept of radiation dosage. In the main part of the book, a series of scientific reports presents valuable data on the radiation surveys of the environment, environmental radioactivity, transfer models and parameters of radioactive nuclides and dose assessment among residents. These reports present a wide range of findings from the research carried out in a variety of activities by large governmental organizations as well as by small private groups and individuals. The reader thus will find a large collection of valuable and interesting data related to the environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides after the Fukushima accident. Although earlier reports on this issue have been made public, this book is the only publication to fully depict the actual situation by providing comprehensive data obtained by diverse organizations and individuals.

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