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Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin

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Book Series: Regional Climate Studies ISSN: 18620248 ISBN: 9783319160054 9783319160061 Year: Pages: 501 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-16006-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Meteorology and Climatology --- Environmental Engineering --- Business and Management --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-08 13:05:58
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​This book is an update of the first BACC assessment, published in 2008. It offers new and updated scientific findings in regional climate research for the Baltic Sea basin. These include climate changes since the last glaciation (approx. 12,000 years ago), changes in the recent past (the last 200 years), climate projections up until 2100 using state-of-the-art regional climate models and an assessment of climate-change impacts on terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. There are dedicated new chapters on sea-level rise, coastal erosion and impacts on urban areas. A new set of chapters deals with possible causes of regional climate change along with the global effects of increased greenhouse gas concentrations, namely atmospheric aerosols and land-cover change.The evidence collected and presented in this book shows that the regional climate has already started to change and this is expected to continue. Projections of potential future climates show that the region will probably become considerably warmer and wetter in some parts, but dryer in others. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems have already shown adjustments to increased temperatures and are expected to undergo further changes in the near future.The BACC II Author Team consists of 141 scientists from 12 countries, covering various disciplines related to climate research and related impacts. BACC II is a project of the Baltic Earth research network and contributes to the World Climate Research Programme.

Railway Ecology

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783319574950 9783319574967 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57496-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Ecology --- Transportation
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 15:27:57
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This book provides a unique overview of the impacts of railways on biodiversity, integrating the existing knowledge on the ecological effects of railways on wildlife, identifying major knowledge gaps and research directions and presenting the emerging field of railway ecology.The book is divided into two major parts: Part one offers a general review of the major conceptual and theoretical principles of railway ecology. The chapters consider the impacts of railways on wildlife populations and concentrate on four major topics: mortality, barrier effects, species invasions and disturbances (ranging from noise to chemical pollution). Part two focuses on a number of case studies from Europe, Asia and North America written by an international group of experts.

Teenage Reproductive Health: Pregnancy, Contraception, Unsafe Abortion, Fertility

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ISBN: 9783038970613 9783038970620 Year: Pages: X, 190 Language: Englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Gynecology and Obstetrics --- Sociology --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 10:23:33
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Maternal mortality is still globally high and reducing it is a top priority. Teenage pregnancies have more complications and are also unwanted in many cases. This contributes to the high maternal mortality with both obstetric complications and burden of unsafe abortion. Additionally, many teenagers live in areas with heavy pollution that affects the mother and the unborn child. Global public health is a very important issue that aims to prevent disease, prolong life, and promote physical, mental and social well-being. Teenagers are the future, and maternal death is a disaster that should be prevented. Hence, research should aim to improve teenage reproductive health and influence policy makers. There are a variety of topics in this issue, with some conclusions and ways forward as described in different papers in this book.

Health of People, Health of Planet and Our Responsibility

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783030311254 Year: Pages: 419 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-31125-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Environmental Sciences --- Public Health --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-19 04:54:34
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"This open access book not only describes the challenges of climate disruption, but also presents solutions. The challenges described include air pollution, climate change, extreme weather, and related health impacts that range from heat stress, vector-borne diseases, food and water insecurity and chronic diseases to malnutrition and mental well-being. The influence of humans on climate change has been established through extensive published evidence and reports. However, the connections between climate change, the health of the planet and the impact on human health have not received the same level of attention. Therefore, the global focus on the public health impacts of climate change is a relatively recent area of interest. This focus is timely since scientists have concluded that changes in climate have led to new weather extremes such as floods, storms, heat waves, droughts and fires, in turn leading to more than 600,000 deaths and the displacement of nearly 4 billion people in the last 20 years. Previous work on the health impacts of climate change was limited mostly to epidemiologic approaches and outcomes and focused less on multidisciplinary, multi-faceted collaborations between physical scientists, public health researchers and policy makers. Further, there was little attention paid to faith-based and ethical approaches to the problem. The solutions and actions we explore in this book engage diverse sectors of civil society, faith leadership, and political leadership, all oriented by ethics, advocacy, and policy with a special focus on poor and vulnerable populations. The book highlights areas we think will resonate broadly with the public, faith leaders, researchers and students across disciplines including the humanities, and policy makers."

ECO-COMPASS

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038976905 9783038976912 Year: Pages: 219 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-691-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Media and communication --- Transportation
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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Today, mainly man-made materials, such as carbon and glass fibers, are used to produce composite parts in aviation. Renewable materials, such as natural fibers or bio-sourced resin systems, have not yet found their way into aviation. The project ECO-COMPASS aims to evaluate the potential applications of ecologically improved composite materials in the aviation sector in an international collaboration of Chinese and European partners. Natural fibers such as flax and ramie will be used for different types of reinforcements and sandwich cores. Furthermore, bio-based epoxy resins to substitute bisphenol-A based epoxy resins in secondary structures are under investigation. Adapted material protection technologies to reduce environmental influence and to improve fire resistance are needed to fulfil the demanding safety requirements in aviation. Modelling and simulation of chosen eco-composites aims for an optimized use of materials while a Life Cycle Assessment aims to prove the ecological advantages compared to synthetic state-of-the-art materials. This Special Issue provides selected papers from the project consortium partners.

Contested Knowledges: Water Conflicts on Large Dams and Mega-Hydraulic Development

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038978107 9783038978114 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-811-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Water acquisition, storage, allocation and distribution are intensely contested in our society, whether, for instance, such issues pertain to a conflict between upstream and downstream farmers located on a small stream or to a large dam located on the border of two nations. Water conflicts are mostly studied as disputes around access to water resources or the formulation of water laws and governance rules. However, explicitly or not, water conflicts nearly always also involve disputes among different philosophical views. The contributions to this edited volume have looked at the politics of contested knowledge as manifested in the conceptualisation, design, development, implementation and governance of large dams and mega-hydraulic infrastructure projects in various parts of the world. The special issue has explored the following core questions: Which philosophies and claims on mega-hydraulic projects are encountered, and how are they shaped, validated, negotiated and contested in concrete contexts? Whose knowledge counts and whose knowledge is downplayed in water development conflict situations, and how have different epistemic communities and cultural-political identities shaped practices of design, planning and construction of dams and mega-hydraulic projects? The contributions have also scrutinised how these epistemic communities interactively shape norms, rules, beliefs and values about water problems and solutions, including notions of justice, citizenship and progress that are subsequently to become embedded in material artefacts.

Keywords

hydroelectric development --- hydropower --- dam --- indigenous peoples --- first nations --- Canada --- Site C --- British Columbia --- environmental impacts --- socio-economic impacts --- hydropower --- Mekong River Basin --- political ecology --- STS --- public knowledge controversies --- large dams --- dam safety --- hazard risk --- environmental governance --- uncertainty --- knowledge politics --- marginalization --- political ecology --- Himalayas --- India --- hydropower development --- politicized collective identity --- territory --- collective action --- agonistic unity --- vernacular statecraft --- Dzumsa --- North Sikkim --- hydrosocial territory --- knowledge encounters --- hydraulic utopia --- modernity --- commensuration --- anti-dam movement --- Málaga --- Spain --- hiding hand --- A.O. Hirschman --- irrigation --- hydraulic projects --- San Lorenzo irrigation project --- Chixoy irrigation project --- Peru --- Guatemala --- megadams --- social construction of technology --- politics of the governed --- anti-dam resistance movements --- technological design --- contested knowledge --- Ecuador --- expectations --- hydroelectric megaprojects --- socio-technical imaginaries --- Ecuador --- energy policy --- large dams --- socioenvironmental impacts --- compensation measures --- knowledge systems --- commensuration --- negotiation --- territorial control --- Bolivia --- Jacques Lacan --- psychoanalysis --- fantasy --- mega-dam --- Inga --- DR Congo --- hydropolitics --- mega-hydraulic projects --- modernist traditions --- knowledge arenas --- manufactured ignorance --- depoliticization --- UnGovernance --- dehumanizing rationality --- multi-actor multi-scalar alliances --- co-creation --- power --- n/a

Arid Land Systems: Sciences and Societies

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213474 9783039213481 Year: Pages: 380 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-348-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Understanding deserts and drylands is essential, as arid landscapes cover >40% of the Earth and are home to two billion people. Today's problematic environment–human interaction needs contemporary knowledge to address dryland complexity. Physical dimensions in arid zones—land systems, climate and hazards, ecology—are linked with social processes that directly impact drylands, such as land management, livelihoods, and development. The challenges require integrated research that identifies systemic drivers across global arid regions. Measurement and monitoring, field investigation, remote sensing, and data analysis are effective tools to investigate natural dynamics. Equally, inquiry into how policy and practice affect landscape sustainability is key to mitigating detrimental activity in deserts. Relations between socio-economic forces and degradation, agro-pastoral rangeland use, drought and disaster and resource extraction reflect land interactions. Contemporary themes of food security, conflict, and conservation are interlinked in arid environments. This book unifies desert science, arid environments, and dryland development. The chapters identify land dynamics, address system risks and delineate human functions through original research in arid zones. Mixed methodologies highlight the vital links between social and environmental science in global deserts. The book engages with today's topical themes and presents novel analyses of arid land systems and societies.

Keywords

Central Asia --- landscape --- One Belt --- One Road --- Kazakhstan --- Kyrgyzstan --- infrastructure --- environment --- New Silk Road --- drylands --- wind erosion modelling --- drag partition --- aerodynamic roughness --- remote sensing --- computational fluid dynamics --- cellular automata --- remote sensing --- modelling --- coverage --- grass height --- Cuchillas de la Zarca --- Chobe --- forest resources --- ecosystem services --- non-linear change --- protected areas --- disturbance --- drought --- sustainable livelihoods --- ecotone --- dryland --- KAZA --- Southern Africa --- nomadic pastoralism --- spatial migration model --- Afar --- livestock --- fodder demand --- fodder supply --- Asian dust --- human health --- Mongolia --- Japan --- subarctic agriculture --- Greenland --- soil quality index --- farming at its limits --- air temperature increase --- increase of growing season --- dry lake beds --- dust storm emission --- remote sensing --- Gobi Desert region --- communal rangelands --- property rights --- environmental impacts --- policy implementation --- drylands --- arid region --- LUCC --- driving forces --- snow index --- SPOT VGT --- Kashgar Region --- degrading --- tamarind age --- regeneration --- invasive vine --- vegetation survey --- erosion --- rotational grazing --- continuous grazing --- grassland degradation --- case study of nomadic and settlement grazing system --- remote sensing --- Mongolian grassland --- arid area --- land use change --- soil carbon storage --- global carbon balance --- the Shiyang River Basin --- riparian ecosystems --- Sonoran desert --- remote sensing --- land cover/land use --- drip irrigation --- groundwater --- common-pool resource --- water rights --- local farming --- desert reclamation --- desertification --- river basin development --- political ecology --- water --- vegetation response to precipitation --- dust storm outbreak --- cross correlation analysis --- the Hovmoller diagram --- environmental regime shift --- Gobi desert of Mongolia --- climate hazard --- Asia --- drylands --- risk --- drought --- desert --- Central Asia --- Kyrgyzstan --- infrastructure --- environment --- mining --- social movements --- protest --- environmental justice --- subversive clientelism --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- Sanjiangyuan region --- social–ecological systems --- pastoralism --- partnerships --- co-management --- national parks --- Belt and Road Initiative --- mountains of Central Asia --- pastoralism --- Ethiopia --- South Omo --- Nyangatom --- Jordan River Basin --- water productivity --- Jordan --- Israel --- Palestine --- agriculture --- agricultural water intensity --- decoupling --- water security --- institutional change --- ecosystem services --- economic valuation --- drylands --- absence --- afforestation --- charisma --- China --- conservation --- desertification --- Gobi --- Mongolia

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