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Topics in Public Health

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ISBN: 9789535121329 9789535142218 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.5772/58484 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Public health has been defined as the efforts of a community that allow a population to remain healthy. This definition is very inclusive, so elements of clinical care, health promotion and many other fields contribute to the larger discipline of public health. The profession has evolved in recent years, with the emphasis in the developed world changing from the hygiene method for control of infectious diseases to a more complex approach to address chronic disease. However, the focus in public health continues to be the population. This book provides a sample of fields that contribute to the public health profession. Its broad approach provides examples of the core fields of public health, including environmental health, epidemiology, biostatistics, health administration, and health behavior.

Trace Elements - Human Health and Environment

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781789236705 9781789236712 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.72339 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Over the last few years, we have witnessed increasing efforts dedicated to the scientific investigation and characteristics of trace elements. Especially in the field of human and animal nutrition, trace elements display a considerably attractive issue for research because they play an essential role in the nutrition of both animals and humans. Aquatic environments contaminated with trace elements are an emerging research area due to the toxicity, abundance, and environmental persistence of trace elements. Accumulation of heavy metals as a class of trace elements in various environments, and the subsequent transition of these elements into the food and feed chain, severely affects human health. The determination of type and concentration of trace elements is regarded as the first and most important step to follow the mechanisms controlling the dispersal and accumulation of trace elements. Element speciation in different media (water, soil, food, plants, coal, biological matter, food, and fodder) is pivotal to assess an element's toxicity, bioavailability, environmental mobility, and biogeochemical performance. Recently, new analytical techniques have been developed, which greatly simplified the quantitation of many trace elements and considerably extended their detection range. In this context, the development of reproducible and accurate techniques for trace element analysis in different media using spectroscopic instrumentation is continuously updated.

Indoor Environment and Health

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ISBN: 9781789843736 9781789843743 9781789846065 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.78905 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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A shelter is one of the physiological needs according to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, which lies at the bottom of the pyramid. People spend around 90% of their time in shelters, or in today's words: buildings. They sleep, eat, work, relax, exercise, play, are born, and die in these buildings. In fact, they ""live"" within walls. Therefore, an indoor environment is crucial for their health and safety. This book, therefore, addresses the issues related to the impact of a sustainable healthy and comfortable indoor environment on the quality of life, and perceives the required indoor conditions for productivity and effectiveness. Thereby, this book is designed to include issues and extensive discussions on thermal comfort, indoor air quality, visual comfort, acoustic comfort, productivity, and indoor health and safety. The concepts of heating, ventilation, air conditioning, external temperature, air pollution, sick building, indoor pollutants, illumination, glare, indoor lighting, daylight, noise, construction materials, sound intensity, and furniture on the indoor environment are described in detail in this book.

Ranaviruses: Lethal Pathogens of Ectothermic Vertebrates

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783319137544 9783319137551 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-13755-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Therapeutics --- Biotechnology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-12 15:59:14
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This is the first book on ranaviruses. Ranaviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that cause hemorrhagic disease in amphibians, reptiles, and fish. They have caused mass die-offs of ectothermic vertebrates in wild and captive populations around the globe. There is evidence that this pathogen is emerging and responsible for population declines in certain locations. Considering that amphibians and freshwater turtles are suitable hosts and the most imperiled vertebrate taxa in the world, ranaviruses can have significant impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem function. Additionally, many fish that are raised in aquaculture facilities and traded internationally are suitable hosts; thus, the potential economic impact of ranaviruses is significant. Ranaviruses also serve as a model for replication and gene function of large double-stranded DNA viruses. There is an urgent need to assemble the contemporary information on ranaviruses and provide guidance on how to assess their threats in populations. Through the Global Ranavirus Consortium, 24 experts from six countries were organize to write this volume, the first book on ranaviruses. The book begins with a discussion on the global extent of ranaviruses, case histories of infection and disease in ectothermic vertebrates, and current phylogeny. Basic principles of ranavirus ecology and evolution are covered next, with a focus on host-pathogen interactions and how the virus emerges in its environment. There are two chapters that will discuss the molecular biology of ranaviruses, host response to infection, and the genes responsible for immune system evasion. One chapter establishes standards for testing for infection and diagnosing ranaviral disease. The book ends by providing guidance on how to design ranavirus surveillance studies and analyze data to determine risk, and discussing the role of the Global Ranavirus Consortium in organizing research and outreach activities.

The Brassicaceae Agri-Horticultural and Environmental Perspectives

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456451 Year: Pages: 369 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-645-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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This Frontiers Research Topic "The Brassicaceae- Agri-Horticultural and Environmental Perspectives" is an effort to provide a common platform to agronomists, horticulturists, plant breeders, plant geneticists/molecular biologists, plant physiologists and environmental plant scientists exploring major insights into the role of important members of the plant family Brassicaceae (the mustard family, or Cruciferae) in agri-horticultural and environmental arenas.

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Public Health: Progress and Current Challenges

ISBN: 9783038421559 9783038421566 Year: Pages: 316
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 15:26:51
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Over the past decade, coastal and freshwater systems in the U.S. and worldwide have experienced an apparent increase in the frequency and geographic distribution of harmful algal blooms (HABs). These blooms can adversely affect both public health and ecosystem health. Toxin-producing HABs can accumulate in drinking and recreational waters and in foods of aquatic origin such as fish and seafood. Human and animal health risks include exposure to the toxins through eating contaminated food or drinking or swimming in contaminated water. Because of these potential public health risks, several countries and U.S. states have developed monitoring programs and guidelines for drinking and recreational water quality to protect public health. This special issue will present research papers and reviews on various aspects of public health and environmental responses to harmful algal blooms. [...]

Radiation Monitoring and Dose Estimation of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

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ISBN: 9784431545828 9784431545835 Year: Pages: 223 DOI: 10.1007/978-4-431-54583-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Nuclear Physics --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-05 12:56:57
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This book provides comprehensive research findings related to the environmental monitoring of radiation, levels of radioactive nuclides in various environments and dose estimation in residents after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident caused severe environmental contamination with radioactive nuclides. At the beginning of the book, a technical review written by a leading researcher of nuclear reactor technology explains what happened at the power plant. The review is followed by a commentary from a former member of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, providing the reader with easily understandable information about the concept of radiation dosage. In the main part of the book, a series of scientific reports presents valuable data on the radiation surveys of the environment, environmental radioactivity, transfer models and parameters of radioactive nuclides and dose assessment among residents. These reports present a wide range of findings from the research carried out in a variety of activities by large governmental organizations as well as by small private groups and individuals. The reader thus will find a large collection of valuable and interesting data related to the environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides after the Fukushima accident. Although earlier reports on this issue have been made public, this book is the only publication to fully depict the actual situation by providing comprehensive data obtained by diverse organizations and individuals.

Remote Sensing and Geospatial Technologies in Public Health

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ISBN: 9783038971726 9783038971733 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-173-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-21 11:22:29
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This book demonstrates the utilization of remote sensing and geospatial technologies for a wide range of public health studies.Although remote sensing and geospatial technologies have been successfully applied for more than 50 years, continuous advancements are essential to better understand the complex environment around us that impacts our health and well-being.Thankfully, the availability of spatial analytical tools and necessary data have enabled us to reveal multifaceted, obscured spatial relationships that would have been unexplored otherwise. Now, we are able to make more precise and effective public health-related decisions. However, without a proper understanding of the methodologies, applying these tools may result in inaccurate findings for decision-making.With 15 selected papers, this book covers diverse topics and discusses different methodologies that are fundamentals for spatial analysis in public health. Readers will have an opportunity to experience the advancements in spatial tools, data, and methodologies that are applicable to public health investigations.This book, Remote Sensing and Geospatial Technologies in Public Health, is expected to encourage academicians and professionals to further advance their knowledge in this sub-discipline.

Educating the Global Workforce for Public Health

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454471 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-447-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Good quality management of the health system demands a critical mass of health professionals with sound technical knowledge. The education that produces a workforce of appropriate size and skills is often a challenge in the delivery of quality health services. Incidentally, health professionals’ education has not kept pace with the new emerging challenges. Recent globalization of health has further led to international migration of health professionals, thereby leading to cross-border recognition of health workers with an appropriate skill-mix, knowledge, and competence. The Lancet Commission Report of 2010 highlighted the need to develop a common strategy at a global level for postgraduate medical, nursing, and public health education that reaches beyond the confines of national borders and the silos of individual professions. This vision would require a series of instructional and institutional reforms, which should be guided by two proposed outcomes: transformative learning and interdependence in education. The purpose of this Research Topic is to increase the shared understanding of the current status of the education of the health workforce around the globe, particularly those working in the public health sector. With this foundation, further research and evaluation studies can then be done with a perspective that addresses global workforce issues impacting access, prevention, and care.

Human Mobility, Spatiotemporal Context, and Environmental Health: Recent Advances in Approaches and Methods

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ISBN: 9783039211838 / 9783039211845 Year: Pages: 382 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-184-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Environmental health researchers have long used concepts like the neighborhood effect to assessing people’s exposure to environmental influences and the associated health impact. However, these are static notions that ignore people’s daily mobility at various spatial and temporal scales (e.g., daily travel, migratory movements, and movements over the life course) and the influence of neighborhood contexts outside their residential neighborhoods. Recent studies have started to incorporate human mobility, non-residential neighborhoods, and the temporality of exposures through collecting and using data from GPS, accelerometers, mobile phones, various types of sensors, and social media. Innovative approaches and methods have been developed. This Special Issue aims to showcase studies that use new approaches, methods, and data to examine the role of human mobility and non-residential contexts on human health behaviors and outcomes. It includes 21 articles that cover a wide range of topics, including individual exposure to air pollution, exposure and access to green spaces, spatial access to healthcare services, environmental influences on physical activity, food environmental and diet behavior, exposure to noise and its impact on mental health, and broader methodological issues such as the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP) and the neighborhood effect averaging problem (NEAP). This collection will be a valuable reference for scholars and students interested in recent advances in the concepts and methods in environmental health and health geography.

Keywords

obesity --- built environment --- activity space --- regression analysis --- UGCoP --- foodscape exposure --- activity space --- commuting route --- space-time kernel density estimation --- time-weighted exposure --- Beijing --- cycling for transportation --- bike paths --- train stations --- subway stations --- adults --- Brazil --- fuel consumption --- emissions estimation --- GPS trace --- big data --- air pollution exposure --- human mobility --- mobile phone data --- dynamic assessment --- GIS --- GPS --- activity space --- environmental exposure --- the uncertain geographic context problem --- noise pollution --- mental disorders --- built environment --- multilevel model --- China --- PM concentrations --- crop residue burning --- correlation analysis --- interannual and seasonal variations --- China --- the neighborhood effect averaging problem (NEAP) --- human mobility --- environmental exposure --- the uncertain geographic context problem --- UGCoP --- car ownership --- car use --- built environment --- spatial autocorrelation --- multilevel Bayesian model --- geographical accessibility --- Healthcare services --- GIS --- E2SFCA --- CHAS --- Singapore --- environmental health --- food environment --- environmental context cube --- environmental context exposure index --- the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP) --- GPS --- GIS --- healthcare accessibility --- catchment areas --- access probability --- taxi GPS trajectories --- E2SFCA --- greenspace exposure --- health --- human mobility --- physical activity --- structural equation modeling --- Guangzhou --- healthcare accessibility --- population demand --- geographic impedance --- the elderly --- urban planning --- 3SFCA --- real-time traffic --- crowdedness --- well-being experience --- long-distance walking --- collective leisure activity --- walking event --- urban leisure --- missing data --- spatial data --- imputation --- geographic imputation --- activity space --- ecological momentary assessment --- EMA --- walking --- active travel --- ageing --- physical environment --- personal projects --- activity space --- Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) --- spatial accessibility --- multimodal network --- primary healthcare --- China --- 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic --- transport modes --- rail travel --- spatial spread --- quantile regression --- green space --- road traffic accidents --- cognitive aging --- activity space --- life-course perspectives --- environmental exposures

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