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From Darwinian Metaphysics towards Understanding the Evolution of Evolutionary Mechanisms - A Historical and Philosophical Analysis of Gene-Darwinism and Universal Darwinism

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ISBN: 9783863950064 Year: Pages: 502 Language: English
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Biology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2012-04-11 21:20:13
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Although Charles Darwin predicted that his theory “would give zest to [...] metaphysics,” even he would be astonished at the variety of paths his theory has in fact taken. This holds with regard to both gene-Darwinism, a purified Darwinian approach biologizing the social sciences, and process- Darwinism found in the disciplines of psychology, philosophy of science, and economics. Although Darwinism is often linked to highly confirmed biological theories, some of its interpretations seem to profit from tautological claims as well, where scientific reputation cloaks ideological usage. This book discusses central tenets of Darwinism historically as well as systematically, for example the history of different Darwinian paradigms, the units-of-selection debate, and the philosophical problem of induction as basis of metaphysical Darwinism. Crucially the book addresses the Darwinian claim that evolution is governed by an immutable and unrelentingly cruel law of natural selection. Paradoxically, Darwin’s theory is a static, non-evolutionary theory of evolution. The current book sketches the historical background and provides suggestions that may help to replace this approach by the idea of an evolution of evolutionary mechanisms (see Escher’s “Drawing Hands” on the cover). This view even suggests a tendency to overcome the blindness of the knowledge acquisition of primordial Darwinian processes and allows for some freedom from external environments. This book first develops a radically Darwinian approach, then criticises this approach from within. Even Darwinism has a tendency to transcend itself. Although the book addresses several empirical issues, it does not challenge particular findings. Instead it builds on many insights of Darwinism and provides a proposal for interpreting known empirical evidence in a different light. It should help pave the way for further developing an understanding of nature that transcends Darwinian metaphysics.

Keywords

Darwinism --- Evolution

Chapter 7 Cellular Control of Time, Size, and Shape in Development and Evolution (Book chapter)

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Book Series: Evolutionary Cell Biology ISBN: 9781315155968 9781498787864 Year: Pages: 48 Language: English
Publisher: CRC Press
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:44:13
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The rules by which anatomical size and shape are generated have intrigued scientists&#xD;for centuries. In 1638, Galileo suggested a mathematical relationship between proportional&#xD;changes in the shape of bones as animals increase in size, which he argued&#xD;was a functional necessity for weight bearing (1914). The formalism of Galileo,&#xD;whereby, physical forces and mathematical laws became integrated with studies&#xD;of size and shape in biology, was most conspicuously encapsulated over a hundred&#xD;years ago in the 1917 monumental tome by D’Arcy Thompson entitled, On Growth&#xD;and Form (Thompson 1917). In a breathtakingly comprehensive manner, Thompson&#xD;synthesized the observations of numerous predecessors and contemporaries, and&#xD;through countless examples built a theoretical and experimental framework for&#xD;describing changes in morphology that persists to this day (Stern and Emlen 1999;&#xD;Arthur 2006).

The Origin and the Evolution of Firms

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ISBN: 9781607509561 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_413210 Language: English
Publisher: IOS Press Grant: Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
Subject: Biology --- Heat --- Astronomy (General) --- Science (General) --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2012-05-21 00:00:00
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The firms and markets of today's complex socio-economic system developed in a spontaneous process termed evolution, in just the same way as the universe, the solar system, the Earth and all that lives upon it. Darwin's theory of evolution clearly demonstrated that evolution involved increasing organization. As we began to explore the molecular basis of life and its evolution, it became equally clear that it depended on the processing and communication of information. This book develops a consistent theory of evolution in its wider sense, examining the information based laws and forces that drive it. Exploring subjects as diverse as economics and the theories of thermodynamics, the author revisits the paradox of the apparent conflict between the laws of thermodynamics and evolution to arrive at a systems theory, tracing a continuous line of evolving information sets that connect the Big-Bang to the firms and markets of our current socio-economic system.

Vibrio ecology, pathogenesis and evolution

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192892 Year: Pages: 239 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-289-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Oceanography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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Vibrios are Gram-negative bacilli that occur naturally in marine, estuarine, and freshwater systems. Some species include human and animal pathogens capable of causing gastroenteritis, wound infections, cholera, and fatal septicemia. Over the past decades, cutting edge research on Vibrio genomics has promoted a tremendous advance in our knowledge of these pathogens. Significant developments include the discovery of emerging epidemic clones, tracking the spread of new strain variants, and an intensified appreciation of the role of mobile genetic elements in antibiotic resistance spread as well as pathogenesis. Furthermore, improved understanding of the interaction of Vibrios with a variety of living organisms in the aquatic environment has documented the significant role of environmental reservoirs in their seasonal cycle favoring persistence of the pathogen during inter-epidemic periods and enhancing disease transmission. This Research Topic is dedicated to our current understanding in these areas and will bring together leading experts in the field to provide a deep overview of Vibrios ecology and evolution, and will suggest the pathway of future research in this field.

Keywords

Vibrio --- Ecology --- Genome --- evolution --- Pathogenesis

Papers of the Conference on Genetics of Aging and Longevity 2012

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193530 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-353-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The 2nd International Conference "Genetics of aging and longevity" took place 22-25 April, 2012 in the main building of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. Top gerontologists and geneticists from 25 countries around the world discussed the current problems in many areas related to the genetics of longevity and mechanisms of aging. This Research Topic is aimed to provide a collection of articles based on the talks, reports and experimental outcomes related to the topics of the conference: "Epigenetic Changes Associated with Longevity", "Hormones and Aging", "Proximal and Cellular Mechanisms of Aging", "Nutrient Signaling, Stress Resistance and Longevity", "Identifying Longevity Genes by Mutational, QTL and Association Mapping", "Fundamental Biological Processes Central to Aging", "Interventions to Extend Lifespan and Promote Healthy Aging", "Longevity: Meta-Analysis and Informatics Approaches". Participants of the Conference submitted 20 papers belonging to Original Research Papers, Review Articles (Including Mini Reviews), Opinion and Perspective Papers. All of the submitted manuscripts were peer-reviewed by excellent Frontiers Review Editors and prepared for publication by highly efficient Frontiers team, and it is a pleasure to thank them all for their work and dedication.

Origin of Tropical Diversity: From Clades to Communities

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450503 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-050-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Ecology --- Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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In this volume we aimed to assess progress in determining the processes by which current patterns of tropical biodiversity were established and are maintained. Tropical regions are highly species-rich and we present studies that have improved our understanding of the generation of that diversity at local, regional and global scales. We demonstrate how diverse fields from molecular phylogenetics, phylogeography, palaeontology and palaeoecology continue to improve our understanding of the natural history of the tropics.

Keywords

Tropics --- evolution --- clades --- communities --- Biodiversity

Diversity and Evolution of Butterfly Wing Patterns: An Integrative Approach

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ISBN: 9789811049552 9789811049569 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4956-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-24 11:57:27
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This book facilitates an integrative understanding of the development, genetics and evolution of butterfly wing patterns. To develop a deep and realistic understanding of the diversity and evolution of butterfly wing patterns, it is essential and necessary to approach the problem from various kinds of key research fields such as “evo-devo,” “eco-devo,” ”developmental genetics,” “ecology and adaptation,” “food plants,” and “theoretical modeling.”The past decade-and-a-half has seen a veritable revolution in our understanding of the development, genetics and evolution of butterfly wing patterns. In addition, studies of how environmental and climatic factors affect the expression of color patterns has led to increasingly deeper understanding of the pervasiveness and underlying mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. In recognition of the great progress in research on the biology, an international meeting titled “Integrative Approach to Understanding the Diversity of ButterflyWing Patterns (IABP-2016)” was held at Chubu University, Japan in August 2016. This book consists of selected contributions from the meeting. Authors include main active researchers of new findings of corresponding genes as well as world leaders in both experimental and theoretical approaches to wing color patterns.The book provides excellent case studies for graduate and undergraduate classes in evolution, genetics/genomics, developmental biology, ecology, biochemistry, and also theoretical biology, opening the door to a new era in the integrative approach to the analysis of biological problems.

Keywords

nymphalid --- ecology --- evolution --- genetics --- mimicry

Dynamics of Evolution and Learning

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ISBN: 9783866442474 Year: Pages: X, 168 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000008384 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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The book develops a unifying perspective on how learning influences evolutionary dynamics which for the first time explains seemingly contradicting results from the literature. It also reveals formerly unknown facets of the complex interplay of the two major biological adaptation mechanisms. The results apply to models from computational intelligence and evolutionary biology alike, thus contribute to the transfer of principles of biological adaptation to digital processing system.

Ontology Alignment using Biologically-inspired Optimisation Algorithms

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ISBN: 9783866449367 Year: Pages: XIV, 220 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000030761 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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It is investigated how biologically-inspired optimisation methods can be used to compute alignments between ontologies. Independent of particular similarity metrics, the developed techniques demonstrate anytime behaviour and high scalability. Due to the inherent parallelisability of these population-based algorithms it is possible to exploit dynamically scalable cloud infrastructures - a step towards the provisioning of Alignment-as-a-Service solutions for future semantic applications.

L’empire des gènes

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ISBN: 9782847880458 9782847884371 Year: Language: French
Publisher: ENS Éditions
Added to DOAB on : 2015-05-19 12:22:25
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Cet ouvrage retrace le parcours sinueux et l’échec de la sociobiologie humaine, cette théorie pseudo-scientifique qui anima les débats entre 1975 et 1985 et s’inscrivit comme idéologie scientiste dans l’ensemble des théories sur la nature humaine. Partant d’une analyse épistémologique des concepts de la sociobiologie humaine et de la sociobiologie animale, l’auteur établit la filiation historique de ceux-ci, des modèles et des idées qui les ont historiquement justifiés et de celles qui les ju...

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