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High-Level Adaptation and Aftereffects

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451470 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-147-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Abstract

Aftereffects generally occur after a prolonged exposure (adaptation) to a first stimulus possessing one given property followed by presentation of a stimulus bearing a neutral value of that property. The aftereffect consists in a change in appearance of the neutral stimulus following the adapter, compared to the appearance of the neutral stimulus when it is perceived without any previous exposure to the adapter. The transient phenomena of perceptual aftereffects are believed to depend on the activation of neuron populations that respond selectively to a given property of the stimuli. Studying how adaptation occurs (which stimulus properties are sensitive to it, which timings are necessary, whether individual differences modulate its occurrence) has thus become an indirect way to probe the plasticity of sensory functions in the nervous system, recently extending to more cognitive and representational aspects of neural coding. In the last two decades, indeed, it has been demonstrated that aftereffects occur not only for low-level properties of stimuli (such as motion, color, or orientation) but also for high-level properties. Many studies have proven that high-level proprieties of the stimuli, e.g. gender, identity, ethnicity, or age of a face or a voice, are sensitive to this phenomenon. It has been shown, for example, that the prolonged exposure to a female or male face produces a gender misperception in the opposite direction when an androgynous face is shown after the adapter. Furthermore, recent studies have also shown that aftereffects are not strictly contingent upon the physical features that make up stimuli, but they seem to run across the high-level proprieties subjects are adapted to. These evidences are supported by cross-category adaptation studies, which underlie how aftereffects occur even across stimuli that do not share physical features (e.g. bodies and faces) but that instead, share common higher-level properties, such as gender. Given the growing body of research focused on adaptation and aftereffects in high-level perception at the boundaries with perceptual learning, attention and cognition, the purpose of this topic is to provide a picture of the state of the art relative to the specific phenomena of adaptation in high-level perceptual processing.

Keywords

adaptation --- Aftereffects --- High-level --- faces --- bodies --- emotion --- Perception

Limbic-Brainstem Roles in Perception, Cognition, Emotion and Behavior

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455409 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-540-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Abstract

The brainstem-limbic regions, including the superior colliculus, pulvinar and amygdala, receive direct perceptual information as a rapid, coarse, subcortical sensory system bypassing early sensory cortical systems, and play a central role in innate behaviors, including motivated and avoidance behaviors. Recent human neuropsychological studies including those on cortical blindness suggest that these subcortical sensory pathways are functional in the intact human brain and interact with more evolutionary recent cortical systems. This eBook presents up-to-date advancements in this area and to highlight the functions of the brainstem-limbic regions in a variety of perceptual, cognitive, affective and behavioral domains. We hope that this current Research Topic provides a comprehensive review to understand roles of the subcortical brainstem-limbic regions in some forms of sensory-motor coupling, cognitive and affective functions.

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