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Recent Advances in Scar Biology

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ISBN: 9783038973980 / 9783038973997 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-399-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Pathology --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-29 11:30:03
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Scars develop in the final stage of wound healing. Wound healing and scarring involve complex biological pathways, and the exact mechanisms by which they are initiated, evolved, and regulated remain to be fully elucidated. Scarless wound healing is a major goal of medical science. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to elucidate the relevant clinical, histopathological, and molecular manifestations of scars, and to understand how these manifestations relate to each other.This Special Issue covers a selection of recent research topics and current review articles in the field of scar research for all kinds of tissues and organs.

Cardiac Remodeling: New Insights in Physiological and Pathological Adaptations

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453313 Year: Pages: 117 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-331-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The effective management of Cardiac remodeling(CR), remains a major challenge. Heart failure remains the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Yet, despite the enormity of the problem, effective therapeutic interventions remain elusive. In fact, several initially promising agents were found to decrease mortality in patients recovering from myocardial infarction. Cardiac remodeling is defined as molecular and interstitial changes, manifested clinically by changes in size, mass , geometry and function of the heart in response to certain aggression. Initially, ventricular remodeling aims to maintain stable cardiac function in situations of aggression.

Macrophages Role in Integrating Tissue Signals and Biological Processes in Chronic Inflammation and Fibrosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453320 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-332-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Macrophages comprehend a heterogeneous mononuclear phagocytic population with wide range phenotypes and roles in homeostasis maintenance and diseases, such as infections, autoimmunity and cancer. Technology improvements enable researchers to track different macrophage populations in different tissues and situations and hypothesize on their role in promoting inflammation or stimulating tissue repair. Through innate immune recognition system macrophages can launch several effector artilleries that culminate in the production of various types of inflammatory mediators as cytokines, chemokines, lipid mediators and oxygen reactive species, which in turn, influence the behavior of other cells. Furthermore, macrophages and interacting cells are also susceptible to metabolic changes that ultimately will define the outcome macrophage signaling and its effect in the tissue. Here, we present a concise series of discussions on the role of macrophages, its response to the microenvironment and effects on other cells during tissue injury and repair. Triggering of inflammasome in macrophage activation and function is of special interest in this issue. We will emphasize the role of different macrophage subpopulations and the plasticity of these cells during fibrotic process in different models of diseases.

Novel Therapeutic Targets and Emerging Treatments for Fibrosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453726 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-372-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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For decades we have known that the overgrowth, hardening and scarring of tissues (so-called fibrosis) represents the final common pathway and best histological predictor of disease progression in most organs. Fibrosis is the culmination of both excess extracellular matrix deposition due to ongoing or severe injury, and a failure to regenerate. An inadequate wound repair process ultimately results in organ failure through a loss of function, and is therefore a major cause of morbidity and mortality in disease affecting both multiple and individual organs.Whilst the pathology of fibrosis and its significance are well understood, until recently we have known little about its molecular regulation. Current therapies are often indirect and non-specific, and only slow progression by a matter of months. The recent identification of novel therapeutic targets, and the development of new treatment strategies based on them, offers the exciting prospect of more efficacious therapies to treat this debilitating disorder.This Research Topic therefore compromises several up-to-date mini-reviews on currently known and emerging therapeutic targets for fibrosis including: the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-family; epigenetic factors; Angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptors; mineralocorticoid receptors; adenosine receptors; caveolins; and the sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate and notch signaling pathways. In each case, mechanistic insights into how each of these factors contribute to regulating fibrosis progression are described, along with how they can be targeted (by existing drugs, small molecules or other mimetics) to prevent and/or reverse fibrosis and its contribution to tissue dysfunction and failure. Two additional reviews will discuss various anti-fibrotic therapies that have demonstrated efficacy at the experimental level, but are not yet clinically approved; and the therapeutic potential vs limitations of stem cell-based therapies for reducing fibrosis while facilitating tissue repair. Finally, this Research Topic concludes with a clinical perspective of various anti-fibrotic therapies for cardiovascular disease (CVD), outlining limitations of currently used therapies, the pipeline of anti-fibrotics for CVD and why so many anti-fibrotic drugs have failed at the clinical level.

Recent advances in Pancreatology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193332 Year: Pages: 69 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-333-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Medicine (General) --- Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Pancreatic diseases include intractable ones including acute and chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. In recent years, great advances have been made in the field of pancreatology, including the pathogenesis, diagnostic modalities, and development of novel therapeutic interventions. It has been established that pancreatic stellate cells play a pivotal role in the development of pancreatic fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis as well as in pancreatic cancer known as desmoplastic reaction. Although it might be still controversial, accumulating evidence has shown that interaction between pancreatic stellate cells-cancer cells contribute to the progression of pancreatic cancer through the increased proliferation and migration, and production of cytokines and extracellular matrix components. In addition, pancreatic stellate cells lead to the resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Pancreatic stellate cells attract the researchers as a novel therapeutic target of pancreatic cancer. Genetic studies have shown that mutations in the trypsin-related genes such as cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene and the serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) gene are associated with pancreatitis. In general, each of these factors appears to limit trypsin activation or enhance inactivation, and is believed to increase intrapancreatic trypsin activity and predispose to pancreatitis when the gene is mutated. These results have supported a concept that pancreatic protease/anti-protease plays pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. In addition, genetic studies focusing on phenotypic variances would provide us with important information how genetic variants would affect the phenotypic variances. Autophagy is an intracellular bulk degradation system in which cytoplasmic components are directed to the lysosome/vacuole by a membrane-mediated process. Recent studies have highlighted a role of autophagy in acute pancreatitis. Using a conditional knockout mouse that lacks the autophagy-related (Atg) gene Atg5 in the pancreatic acinar cells, autophagy exerts a detrimental effect in pancreatic acinar cells by activation of trypsinogen to trypsin. A theory in which autophagy accelerates trypsinogen activation by lysosomal hydrolases under acidic conditions, thus triggering acute pancreatitis in its early stage. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a developmental process that allows a polarized epithelial cell to undergo multiple biochemical changes that enable it to assume a mesenchymal phenotype. The phenotype associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition includes enhanced migratory capacity, invasiveness, elevated resistance to apoptosis, and greatly increased production of extracellular matrix components. In addition to its role in development, tissue regeneration, and fibrosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition is now considered as a critical process in cancer progression. Induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer cells results in the acquisition of invasive and metastatic properties. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition could be an important mechanism in the progression of pancreatic cancer and its poor prognosis. Autoimmune pancreatitis is a unique form of pancreatitis in which autoimmune mechanisms are suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis. There is accumulating study to deal with this new disease concept. In addition to these topics, we have selected several topics in pancreatology, focusing on recent studies increasingly deepening our knowledge in both basic and clinical researches.

Role of Stem Cells in Skeletal Muscle Development, Regeneration, Repair, Aging and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198665 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-866-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Adult stem cells are responsible for tissue regeneration and repair throughout life. Their quiescence or activation are tightly regulated by common signalling pathways that often recapitulate those happening during embryonic development, and thus it is important to understand their regulation not only in postnatal life, but also during foetal development. In this regard, skeletal muscle is an interesting tissue since it accounts for a large percentage of body mass (about 40%), it is highly amenable to intervention through exercise and it is also key in metabolic and physiological changes underlying frailty susceptibility in the elderly. While muscle-resident satellite cells are responsible for all myogenic activity in physiological conditions and become senescent in old age, other progenitor cells such as mesoangioblasts do seem to contribute to muscle regeneration and repair after tissue damage. Similarly, fibro-adipogenic precursor cells seem to be key in the aberrant response that fills up the space left from atrophied muscle mass and which ends up with a dysfunctional muscle having vast areas of fatty infiltration and fibrosis. The complex interplay between these stem/progenitor cell types and their niches in normal and pathological conditions throughout life are the subjects of intense investigation. This eBook highlights recent developments on the role of stem cells in skeletal muscle function, both in prenatal and postnatal life, and their regulation by transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. Additionally, it includes articles on interventions associated with exercise, pathological changes in neuromuscular diseases, and stem cell aging.

A Multidisciplinary Look at Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: An Emerging Multi-Drug-Resistant Global Opportunistic Pathogen

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453535 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-353-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative bacterium found in water, plant rhizospheres, animals, and foods. It is associated with a variety of infections in humans, involving respiratory tract (most common), soft tissue and bone, blood, eye, heart, and brain. This opportunistic pathogen is of serious concern to the immunocompromised patient population, and it is also being isolated with increasing frequency from the respiratory tract of individuals with cystic fibrosis. The observed increase worldwide in antibiotic resistance and the ability of this organism to make biofilms on epithelial cells and medical devices make it difficult for health-care personnel to treat infections caused by this pathogen. Recently, several genomes of S. maltophilia have been sequenced, revealing high genetic diversity among isolates. This pathogen uses a variety of molecular mechanisms to acquire and demonstrate resistance to an impressive array of antimicrobial drugs. Research has also focused on the pathogenesis of S. maltophilia in animal models and the resulting host immune response. S. maltophilia is recognized as an important organism in the plant microbiome. This environmental bacterium uses a diffusible signal mechanism for controlling its colonization and interaction with other bacteria and plants. S. maltophilia has also gained considerable research interest for its biotechnological applications, with recent studies on enzyme production, anti-biofilm strategies, biodegradation, and bioremediation. This e-book focuses on the latest developments in the areas of physiology, genomics, infection and immunity, host-pathogen interaction, pathogenesis, antimicrobial resistance and therapy, molecular epidemiology, applied and environmental microbiology, bioremediation and biotechnology.

Extracellular Matrix in Development and Disease

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ISBN: 978303897570 / 9783038975717 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-571-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-21 09:43:25
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The extracellular matrix in development and disease deals with the molecular and cellular aspects of development and disease. Cells exist in three-dimensional scaffolding called the extracellular matrix. The matrix holds together the millions of cells that make up our blood vessels, organs, skin, and all tissues of the body. The matrix serves as a reservoir of signaling molecules as well. In bacterial cultures, biofilms form as an extracellular matrix and play essential roles in disease and drug resistance. Topics such as matrix structure and function, cell attachment and cell surface proteins mediating cell-matrix interactions, synthesis, regulation, composition, structure, assembly, remodeling, and function of the matrix are included. A common thread uniting the topics is the essential nature that the matrix plays in normal development and pathophysiology. Providing new knowledge will lead us to improved diagnostics, the preventions of disease progression, and therapeutic strategies for the repair and regeneration of tissues. Topics such as the extracellular matrix in hereditary diseases, reproduction, cancer, muscle, and tissue engineering applications, and diverse roles for integrins, are included in this collection.

Remodeling of cardiac passive electrical properties and susceptibility to ventricular and atrial arrhythmias

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196470 Year: Pages: 141 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-647-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The effective management of cardiac arrhythmias, either of atrial or of ventricular origin, remains a major challenge. Sudden cardiac death due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias remains the leading cause of death in industrialized countries while atrial fibrillation is the most common rhythm disorder; an arrhythmia that’s prevalence is increasing and accounts for nearly one quarter of ischemic stokes the elderly population. Yet, despite the enormity of the problem, effective therapeutic interventions remain elusive. In fact, several initially promising antiarrhythmic agents were found to increase rather than decrease mortality in patients recovering from myocardial infarction. The question then is what went wrong, why have these interventions proven to be so ineffective? An obvious answer is the drugs were designed to attack the wrong therapeutic target. Clearly, targeting single ion channels (using either isolated ion channels or single myocytes preparations) has proven to be less than effective. What then is the appropriate target? It is well established that cardiac electrical properties can vary substantially between single cells and intact preparations. One obvious example is the observation that action potential duration is much longer in isolated cells as compared to multi-cellular preparations or intact hearts. Due to the low electrical resistance between adjacent myocytes, the cells act in coordinated fashion producing “electrotonic interdependence” between neighboring cells. Myocardial infarction and/or acute ischemia provoke profound changes in the passive electrical properties of cardiac muscle. In particular, electrotonic uncoupling of the myocytes disrupts the coordinated activation and repolarization of cardiac tissue. The resulting compensatory changes in ionic currents decrease cardiac electrical stability increasing the risk for life-threatening changes in the cardiac rhythm. Thus, the electrical properties of myocardial cells must be considered as a unit rather than in isolation. It is the purpose of this Research Topic to evaluate the largely neglected relationship between changes in passive electrical properties of cardiac muscle and arrhythmia formation.

Ultrasound Elastography

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ISBN: 9783038979104 / 9783038979111 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-911-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The comparison between methods, evaluation of portal hypertension and many other questions are still open issues in liver elastography. New elastographic applications are under evaluation and close to being used in clinical practice. Strain imaging has been incorporated into many disciplines and EFSUMB guidelines are under preparation. More research is necessary for improved evidence for clinical applications in daily practice. The Special Issue published papers on recent advances in development and application of Ultrasound Elastography.

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