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Trends in Comparative Endocrinology and Neurobiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453993 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-399-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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The comparative approach takes advantage of the biological diversity to select the most appropriate model organism to tackle a scientific question. Comparisons between the endocrine and nervous systems accross species have yielded major breakthroughs in endocrinology and neurobiology. For instance: a number of mammalian peptide hormones and neuropeptides have been originally identified in fish or amphibians; studies conducted in a sea slug founded the cellular and molecular basis of learning and memory; observations of neurogenesis in the forebrain of songbirds led to the discovery of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. These examples illustrate the remarkable contribution of the comparative approach for the advancement of neuroendocrinological concepts.The present e-book is a unique collection of research articles and reviews that provide a representative overview of the latest developments in comparative endocrinology and neurobiology.

Neuropeptide GPCRs in Neuroendocrinology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192670 Year: Pages: 825 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-267-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General) --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The human genome encompasses ~ 860 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) including 374 non-chemosensory GPCRs. Half of these latter GPCRs recognize (neuro)peptides as natural ligands. GPCRs thus play a pivotal role in neuroendocrine communication. In particular, GPCRs are involved in the neuroendocrine control of feeding behavior, reproduction, growth, hydromineral homeostasis and stress response. GPCRs are also major drug targets and hence possess a strong potential for the development of innovative pharmaceuticals. The aim of this Research Topic was to assemble a series of review articles and original research papers on neuropeptide GPCRs and their ligands that would illustrate the different facets of the studies currently conducted in this domain.

Trends in Regulatory Peptides

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455379 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-537-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Regulatory peptides represent the most diverse and versatile family of messenger molecules. They are produced by all living organisms from bacteria to mammals. They are involved in a wide variety of biological functions. Biologically active peptides and their receptors thus constitute an unlimited source of inspiration for the development of innovative drugs and cosmetics.The present eBook is a unique collection of research articles and reviews that provide a representative examplification of the latest progress in regulatory peptide research.

Histamine H4 receptor. A Novel Drug Target For Immunoregulation and Inflammation

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ISBN: 9788376560564 Year: Pages: 368 DOI: 10.2478/9788376560564 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-05 13:31:51
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H4R is the newest member of the histamine receptor family, which was discovered about twelve years ago. It is considered a very promising drug target. The effort to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of the currently available H4R ligands is reflected in a steadily growing number of scientific publications and patent applications. Preclinical data strongly confirms the need for novel potent H4R ligands to explore their therapeutic value in allergy, inflammation, autoimmune disorders, and possibly, cancer. Readers will be provided with extensive knowledge on histamine metabolism, as well as cellular histamine transport, storage and release, effects of histamine and histamine receptor ligands, with particular attention to the H4R, on inflammatory cells including mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and T cells. The present knowledge on the regulatory role of histamine and the therapeutic exploitation of histamine receptor ligands in atopic diseases, with emphasis on human and animal models of asthma, allergic dermatitis and pruritus are discussed.

Monitoring endogenous GPCRs: lessons for drug design

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196517 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-651-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins forming the fourth largest superfamily in the human genome. Many of these receptors play key physiological roles and several pathologies have been associated with receptor functional abnormalities. GPCRs therefore represent important goals for drug design in pharmaceutical companies since they constitute the target of about one third of the drugs currently on the market. However, endogenous GPCRs are most often difficult to study because of a lack of tools to target them specifically and single out their response to physiological or drug-elicited stimulations. Hence, studies mostly focused on recombinant receptors expressed in a variety of cellular models that do not always closely reflect the receptor natural environment and often deal with levels of expression exceeding by far physiological ranges. Recent technological developments combining for example genetically modified animals and advanced imaging approaches have improved our ability to visualize endogenous GPCRs. To date, trailing receptor activation, subsequent intracellular redistribution, changes in signaling cascade up to integrated response to a drug-elicited stimulation is at hand though the impact of a physiological challenge on receptor dynamics remains a major issue. Data however suggest that the receptor may embrace a different fate depending on the type of stimulation in particular if sustained or repeated. This suggests that current drugs may only partially mimic the genuine response of the receptor and may explain, at least in part, their secondary effects. Commonalities and specificities between physiological and drug-induced activation can thus represent valuable guidelines for the design of future drugs.

Biogenic Amines and Neuromodulation of Animal Behavior, 2nd Edition

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455645 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-564-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Since Erspamer and Boretti, 1951 first described the biogenic amine octopamine in the octopus salivary gland as a molecule with “adrenaline-like” action, decades of extensive studies demonstrated the important role octopamine and its precursor tyramine play in invertebrate physiology and behavior. This book contains the latest original research papers on tyramine/octopamine and their receptors in different neuronal and non-neuronal circuits of insects.

Additonally, this book elucidates in detail the latest research on the function of other biogenic amines and their receptors, such as dopamine and serotonin in insects and mice. The reviews in this book summarize the most recent research on the role of biogenic amines in insect antennae, synaptic development, and behavioral modulation by spontaneous dopamine release in Drosophila. Finally, one perspective paper discusses the evolution of social behavior and biogenic amines.

We recommend this book for all scholars interested in the latest advanced research on the role of biogenic amines in animal behavior.

ITS dedicates the topic to her teacher, Plotnikova Svetlana Ivanovna (1922-2013).
Cancer Biomarkers and Targets in Digestive Organs

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ISBN: 9783039214631 9783039214648 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-464-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Identification and development of cancer biomarkers and targets have greatly accelerated progress towards precision medicine in oncology. Studies of tumor biology have not only provided insights into the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis, but also led to discovery of molecules that have been developed into cancer biomarkers and targets. Multi-platforms for molecular characterization of tumors using next-generation genomic sequencing, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and blood-based biopsies have greatly expanded the portfolio of potential biomarkers and targets. These cancer biomarkers have been developed for diagnosis, early detection, prognosis, and prediction of treatment response. The molecular targets have been exploited for anti-cancer therapy and delivery of therapeutic agents. This Special Issue of Biomedicines focuses on recent advances in the discovery, characterization, translation, and clinical application of cancer biomarkers and targets in malignant diseases of the digestive system. The goal is to stimulate basic and translational research and clinical collaboration in this exciting field with the hope of developing strategies for prevention and early detection/diagnosis of cancer in digestive organs, and improving therapeutic and psychosocial outcomes in patients with these malignant diseases.

Keywords

colorectal cancer --- intestinal disorder --- intestinal tumors --- zebrafish --- stereotactic body radiation therapy --- immunotherapy --- biomarkers --- Asian Cancer Research Group (ACRG) --- gastric carcinoma --- molecular profiling --- precision therapy --- pembrolizumab --- predictive biomarkers --- ramucirumab --- The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) --- therapeutic targets --- trastuzumab --- biliary tract carcinoma --- chemotherapy --- clinical trial --- colorectal carcinoma --- gastric carcinoma --- gastrointestinal oncology --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- immunotherapy --- pancreatic carcinoma --- targeted therapy --- Liver transplantation --- liver graft injury --- intragraft gene expression profiles --- cell adhesion molecules --- CD274 --- HFE --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- immunohistochemistry --- molecular profiling --- next-generation sequencing --- precision medicine --- predictive biomarkers --- gastrointestinal oncology --- pancreatic carcinoma --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- biliary tract carcinoma --- gastric carcinoma --- colorectal carcinoma --- stereotactic body radiation therapy --- liver transplant --- targeted therapy --- psychosocial support --- G protein–coupled receptors --- cholecystokinin --- gastrin --- gastrin-releasing peptide --- bombesin --- neurokinin --- neurotensin --- somatostatin --- circulating tumor cells --- colorectal carcinoma --- CAM invasion assay --- phenotypic mosaics --- tumor progenitor --- biomarker --- gastrointestinal malignancies --- immunotherapy --- n/a

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