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A Typological Perspective on Latvian Grammar

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ISBN: 9783110411317 9783110426984 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.2478/9783110411317 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Linguistics --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2015-04-13 10:28:34
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Theoretical studies of Latvian grammar have a great deal to offer to contemporary linguistics. Although traditionally Lithuanian has been the most widely studied Baltic language in diachronic and synchronic linguistics alike, Latvian has a number of distinctive features that can prove valuable both for historical, and perhaps even more so, for synchronic language research. Therefore, at the very least, contemporary typological, areal, and language contact studies involving Baltic languages should account for data from Latvian. Typologically, Latvian grammar is a classic Indo-European (Baltic) system with well-developed inflection and derivation. However, it also bears certain similarities to the Finno-Ugric languages, which can be reasonably explained by its areal and historical background. This applies, for example, to the mood system and its connections with modality and evidentiality in Latvian, also to the correlation between aspect and quantity as manifested in verbal and nominal (case) forms. The relations between debitive mood, certain constructions with reflexive verbs, and voice in Latvian are intriguing examples of unusual morphosyntactic features. Accordingly, the book focuses on the following topics: case system and declension (with emphasis on the polyfunctionality of case forms), gender, conjugation, tense and personal forms, aspect, mood, modality and evidentiality, reflexive verbs, and voice. The examples included in this book have been taken from the Balanced Corpus of Modern Latvian (Lidzsvarots musdienu latviešu valodas tekstu korpuss, available at www.korpuss.lv), www.google.lv, mass media, and fiction texts (see the List of language sources) without regard to relative frequency ratios.

Deutsche Grammatik - Regeln, Normen, Sprachgebrauch

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Book Series: Jahrbuch des Instituts für Deutsche Sprache ISSN: 0537-7900 ISBN: 9783110217360 Year: Volume: 2008 Pages: 388 DOI: 10.1515/9783110217360 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-14 18:42:56

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Concern for the German language will always attract large audiences. Whoever claims that language is going to the dogs can be sure of the approbation of those who see themselves as linguistically superior. However, the status of grammatical rules is seldom questioned. It is in fact by no means clear what can be seen as correct German. How is ´German` to be understood? Who determines what should be regarded as correct? The 44th Annual Conference of the Institut für Deutsche Sprache [German Language Research Institute] endeavoured to help clarify questions such as these, and took as its topic German grammar in the tension between rules, standards and language usage.

Grammatical theory: From transformational grammar to constraint-based approaches

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Book Series: Textbooks in Language Sciences ISBN: 9783944675213 9783946234296 9783946234401 9783946234302 9783946234418 Year: Pages: 831 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_611693 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-07-13 11:01:16
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"This book introduces formal grammar theories that play a role in current linguistic theorizing (Phrase Structure Grammar, Transformational Grammar/Government & Binding, Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar, Lexical Functional Grammar, Categorial Grammar, Head-​Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, Construction Grammar, Tree Adjoining Grammar). The key assumptions are explained and it is shown how the respective theory treats arguments and adjuncts, the active/passive alternation, local reorderings, verb placement, and fronting of constituents over long distances. The analyses are explained with German as the object language.&#xD;&#xD;The second part of the book compares these approaches with respect to their predictions regarding language acquisition and psycholinguistic plausibility. The nativism hypothesis, which assumes that humans posses genetically determined innate language-specific knowledge, is critically examined and alternative models of language acquisition are discussed. The second part then addresses controversial issues of current theory building such as the question of flat or binary branching structures being more appropriate, the question whether constructions should be treated on the phrasal or the lexical level, and the question whether abstract, non-visible entities should play a role in syntactic analyses. It is shown that the analyses suggested in the respective frameworks are often translatable into each other. The book closes with a chapter showing how properties common to all languages or to certain classes of languages can be captured.&#xD;&#xD;The book is a translation of the German book Grammatiktheorie, which was published by Stauffenburg in 2010. "

Further investigations into the nature of phrasal compounding

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Book Series: Morphological Investigations ISBN: 9783961100125 9783961100132 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.885113 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-13 11:01:57
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This collection of papers on phrasal compounding is part of a bigger project whose aims are twofold: First, it seeks to broaden the typological perspective by providing data for as many different languages as possible to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon itself. Second, based on these data which clearly show interaction between syntax and morphology it aims to discuss theoretical models which deal with this kind of interaction in different ways. Models like Generative Grammar assume components of grammar and a clear-cut distinction between the lexicon (often including morphology) and grammar. Other models, like construction grammar, do not assume such components and are rather based on a lexicon including constructs. A comparison of these models on the basis of this phenomenon on the morphology-syntax interface makes it possible to assess their descriptive and explanatory power.

Grammaticalia : Hommage à Bernard Colombat

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ISBN: 9791036200878 DOI: 10.4000/books.enseditions.12141 Language: French
Publisher: ENS Éditions
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:31
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Cet ouvrage présente une collection d’études en histoire de la linguistique en hommage à Bernard Colombat, spécialiste internationalement reconnu des traditions grammaticales latine et française, et maître d'œuvre de nombreux projets numériques et éditoriaux, collectifs et individuels. Les contributions reflètent les intérêts très divers de Bernard Colombat et sont articulées en quatre grandes thématiques : la catégorisation des mots, les auteurs et œuvres remarquables dans l’histoire de la linguistique, les outils linguistiques (corpus, dictionnaires, bases de données), enfin des études correspondant à des perspectives transversales. Les sources analysées couvrent un empan temporel très large de l’histoire de la linguistique, allant de sources sanskrites, grecques, et latines aux grammaires descriptives modernes, en passant par les traités arabes, les manuscrits médiévaux, et les grammaires de la Renaissance. Cette grande diversité de thèmes et de sources fait de l’ouvrage une ressource précieuse pour les linguistes non historiens, pour les étudiants abordant pour la première fois ce vaste domaine, et pour un lecteur généraliste : les articles rassemblés témoignent de l’ampleur de la carrière scientifique de Bernard Colombat, et de sa capacité à fédérer des recherches très diverses pour offrir une vision riche et nuancée de la réflexion linguistique à travers les âges.

A grammar of Moloko

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Book Series: African Language Grammars and Dictionaries ISBN: 9783946234630 9783946234623 9783961100101 Year: Pages: 474 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.824016 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-13 11:02:05
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"This grammar provides the first comprehensive grammatical description of Moloko, a Chadic language spoken by about 10,000 speakers in northern Cameroon. The grammar was developed from hours and years that the authors spent at friends’ houses hearing and recording stories, hours spent listening to the tapes and transcribing the stories, then translating them and studying the language through them. Time was spent together and with others speaking the language and talking about it, translating resources and talking to Moloko people about them. Grammar and phonology discoveries were made in the office, in the fields while working, and at gatherings. In the process, the four authors have become more and more passionate about the Moloko language and are eager to share their knowledge about it with others. Intriguing phonological aspects of Moloko include the fact that words have a consonantal skeleton and only one underlying vowel (but with ten phonetic variants). The simplicity of the vowel system contrasts with the complexity of the verb word, which can include information (in addition to the verbal idea) about subject, direct object (semantic Theme), indirect object (recipient or beneficiary), direction, location, aspect (Imperfective and Perfective), mood (indicative, irrealis, iterative), and Perfect aspect. Some of the fascinating aspects about the grammar of Moloko include transitivity issues, question formation, presupposition, and the absence of simple adjectives as a grammatical class. Most verbs are not inherently transitive or intransitive, but rather the semantics is tied to the number and type of core grammatical relations in a clause. Morphologically, two types of verb pronominals indicate two kinds of direct object; both are found in ditransitive clauses. Noun incorporation of special ‘body-part’ nouns in some verbs adds another grammatical argument and changes the lexical characteristics of the verb. Clauses of zero transitivity can occur in main clauses due to the use of dependent verb forms and ideophones. Question formation is interesting in that the interrogative pronoun is clause-final for most constructions. The clause will sometimes be reconfigured so that the interrogative pronoun can be clause-final. Expectation is a foundational pillar for Moloko grammar. Three types of irrealis mood relate to speaker’s expectation concerning the accomplishment of an event. Clauses are organised around the concept of presupposition, through the use of the na-construction. Known or expected elements are marked with the na particle. There are no simple adjectives in Moloko; all adjectives are derived from nouns. The authors invite others to further explore the intricacies of the phonology and grammar of this intriguing language."

Sprachliches Wissen zwischen Lexikon und Grammatik

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Jahrbuch des Instituts für Deutsche Sprache ISSN: 0537-7900 ISBN: 9783110262339 Year: Volume: 2010 Pages: 603 DOI: 10.1515/9783110262339 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-14 18:42:56

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This volume presents the current linguistic debate on the relationship between lexicon and grammar and on the status of constructions. It makes reference to investigations of phenomena relating to valence, argument structure, diatheses, collocations and phrasemes. Starting from different positions within linguistic theory, thecontributions also reflect the empirical methodologies currently applied to substantiate basic positions in linguistic theory.

1. Formulaic sequences: a drop in the ocean of constructions or something more significant? (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9781138721579 Year: Pages: 24 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:31:32
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This article investigates how formulaic sequences fi t into a&#xD;constructionist approach to grammar, which is a major post-&#xD;Chomskyan family of approaches to linguistic structure. The author&#xD;considers whether, in this framework, formulaic sequences represent&#xD;a phenomenon that is suffi ciently diff erent to warrant special status&#xD;or whether they might best be studied in terms of the larger set of all&#xD;constructions found in language. Based on data drawn from a large&#xD;corpus of Wikipedia texts, it is argued that it is extremely diffi cult&#xD;to form a distinct class of formulaic sequences without creating&#xD;highly arbitrary boundaries. On the other hand, based on existing&#xD;theoretical claims that formulaic sequences are the basis of fi rst&#xD;language acquisition, a marker of profi ciency in a language, critical&#xD;to the success of communicative acts and key to rapid language&#xD;processing, it is argued that formulaic sequences as constructions&#xD;are nevertheless signifi cant enough to be the focus of research, and a&#xD;theoretical category meriting particular attention. These fi ndings have&#xD;key repercussions both for research primarily interested in formulaic&#xD;language and phraseology as well as for construction grammatical&#xD;research.

The Old Nubian Language

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ISBN: 9781947447189 9781947447196 Year: Pages: 82 DOI: 10.21983/P3.0179.1.00 Language: English
Publisher: punctum books
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-12 09:24:33
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Eugenia Smagina (Евгeния Б. Смaгина) first published her grammar of the Old Nubian language in 1986 in Russian. For more than thirty years the work has remained untranslated, even though the late Gerald M. Browne affirmed that “this lucid, well-argued presentation should be available to all Nubiologists and ought therefore be translated into a western language.” Slavicist José Andrés Alonso de la Fuente has prepared a first English translation of this concise but indispensable work, which forms a necessary counterpart to Browne’s classic Old Nubian Grammar. The grammar is divided into sections on script, lexicon, morphology, and syntax, and is followed by the analysis of a sample text, known as The Miracle of St. Mēnas. Smagina’s The Old Nubian Language provides an excellent first introduction into the grammar of this medieval Nilo-Saharan language.

Combinatory Linguistics

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ISBN: 9783110296877 9783110251708 Year: Pages: 298 DOI: 10.1515/9783110296877 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-02 11:21:07

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The book examines to what extent the mediating relation between constituents and their semantics can arise from combinatory knowledge of words. It traces the roots of Combinatory Categorial Grammar, and uses the theory to promote a Humean question in linguistics and cognitive science: Why do we see limited constituency and dependency in natural languages, despite their diversity and potential infinity? A potential answer is that constituents and dependencies might have arisen from a single resource: adjacency. The combinatory formulation of adjacency constrains possible grammars.

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