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Symmetry in Vision

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ISBN: 9783038424963 9783038424970 Year: Pages: X, 198 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-02 11:54:07
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Abstract

Symmetry has a central role in the study of vision. The concept of symmetry has an ancient origin in considerations of visual appearance; in modern times, abstracted and formalized into Group Theory, it has found spectacular applications, far beyond the visible; but its importance for vision persists in many ways including:• As a non-accidental feature of an image that cues affordances, 3D structure or the semantic categories of object present.• As a redundant aspect of an image which many be exploited for simplicity and compactness of encoding.• As a salient feature that draws attention, and evokes distinctive brain responses.• As a constraint on priors on the distribution of structures to be found in the natural world.• As an aesthetic principle.• As a design principle for vision systems.• The original idea for a Special Issue came from a symposium at the European Conference in Visual Perception, in 2015, on the topic of brain responses to visual symmetry, but we have now extended the scope. This Special Issue is devoted to provide a shared place for cutting edge studies on how and why symmetry is processed and exploited by biological and artificial visual systems.

The Cognition of Sequences

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453986 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-398-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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It is impossible to perceive the innumerable stimuli impinging on our senses, all at once. Out of the myriad stimuli, external and internal, a few are selected for further processing; and even among these, we try to put each in some sort of relation with the others, to be able to make some sense about them all. Time, of course, is an elementary dimension we use to organize our experiences. Thus, the perception of sequences is basic to human cognition. Nevertheless, research addressing sequences is rather sparse. Partly, this is due to difficulty in designing experiments in this area due to huge individual differences. Then, there is the assumption that temporal order has more to do with memory than perception. Another problem is that sequences seem endemic to the auditory world. So much so that some researchers have suggested that sound provides the ‘auditory scaffolding’ for sequencing behavior. Little wonder that research studies addressing sequences in modalities other than audition are extremely rare.This research topic aimed to gather a holistic picture of sequencing behaviour among humans by collecting snapshots of the current research on the topic of sequencing. We particularly sought contributions which addressed sequences beyond the auditory modality. The single unifying criteria for these diverse contributions was that they shed new light on previously unexplored empirical relationships and/or provoked new lines of research with incisive ideas regarding sequencing behavior. Seasoned researchers contributed their views on perception, memory, and production of sequences.

Recent Advances in Urban Ventilation Assessment and Flow Modelling

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ISBN: 9783038978060 9783038978077 Year: Pages: 448 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-807-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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This book contains twenty-one original papers and one review paper published by internationally recognized experts in the Atmosphere Special Issue ""Recent Advances in Urban Ventilation Assessment and Flow Modelling"", years 2017–2019. The Special Issue includes contributions on recent experimental and modelling works, techniques, and developments mainly tailored to the assessment of urban ventilation on flow and pollutant dispersion in cities. The study of ventilation is of critical importance, as it addresses the capacity with which a built urban structure is capable of replacing the polluted air with ambient fresh air. Here, ventilation is recognized as a transport process that improves local microclimate and air quality and closely relates to the term “breathability”. The efficiency with which street canyon ventilation occurs depends on the complex interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer flow and the local urban morphology.The individual contributions to this Issue are summarized and categorized into four broad topics: (1) outdoor ventilation efficiency and application/development of ventilation indices, (2) relationship between indoor and outdoor ventilation, (3) effects of urban morphology and obstacles to ventilation, and (4) ventilation modelling in realistic urban districts. The results and approaches presented and proposed will be of great interest to experimentalists and modelers, and may constitute a starting point for the improvement of numerical simulations of flow and pollutant dispersion in the urban environment, for the development of simulation tools, and for the implementation of mitigation strategies.

Keywords

street canyon --- seasonal variation --- air flow --- pollutant dispersion --- pollutant removal --- natural ventilation --- residential wind environments --- building arrangements --- space pattern --- ventilation efficiency --- CFD simulation --- air change rate (ACH) --- flow and turbulence profiles --- hypothetical urban areas --- street-level ventilation --- ventilation assessment --- wind-tunnel dataset --- street vegetation --- CFD --- aerodynamic and deposition --- tree scenarios --- urban planning --- indoor-outdoor --- mass concentration --- nanoparticles --- particle number concentration (PNC) --- PM10 --- PM2.5 --- sampling --- Total Suspended Particles (TSP) --- ultrafine particles (UFP) --- urban street canyon --- wind enhancement --- architectural intervention --- water channel experiment --- CFD simulation --- passive ventilation --- street canyon --- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) --- ventilation effectiveness --- the age of air --- convective boundary layer --- LES --- street-level ventilation --- small open space --- air change rate per hour (ACH) --- concentration decay method --- urban age of air --- computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation --- natural ventilation --- residential building --- climate zone --- thermal comfort --- natural ventilation hour --- Japan cities --- building energy use --- inter-building effect --- highly-reflective building envelope --- BEopt analysis --- source apportionment --- data assimilation --- urban air quality modelling --- wind environment --- Natural Ventilation Potential (NVP) --- PM2.5 --- building–tree grouping patterns --- Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) --- LES --- ventilation --- urban planning --- dispersion --- air quality --- street canyon --- traffic tidal flow --- numerical simulation --- vehicular pollution --- non-uniform distribution of the pollution source --- on-road air quality --- traffic composition --- high emitting vehicles --- street canyon --- mobile laboratory --- CFD model --- heat loss --- optimisation --- residential building --- air quality --- carbon dioxide concentration --- ventilation system --- wind pressure coefficient --- airflow network --- multiple linear regression --- natural ventilation --- urban layout --- surrogate model --- schematic urban environment --- wind tunnel --- LES --- validation --- street canyon --- coherent structures --- road tunnel --- natural ventilation --- wind catcher --- intake fraction --- street canyon --- CFD --- Large Eddy Simulation (LES) --- urban air quality --- pedestrian exposure --- concentration fluctuation --- outdoor ventilation --- urban morphology --- building site coverage --- ventilation efficiency --- n/a

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