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Stigmatization, discrimination and illness

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ISBN: 9783863951085 Year: Pages: 119 Language: English
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General) --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2013-12-26 16:26:34
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“She was given her own plate, her own cup, everything of her own, even when she just touched a cloth then nobody wanted to touch it again.” (Halima, HIV-seropositive) The book sheds light on the profound influence of an HIV-seropositive diagnosis on the lives of women and their social environment in the United Republic of Tanzania. The author, a medical doctor and social anthropologist, tells the story of six Tanzanian HIV-seropositive women, focusing on their negotiation and perception of illness and disease. Furthermore, the high levels of discrimination and stigmatization in the context of HIV-seropositivity that they experience are presented in detail, weaving together the impacts of an HIV-seropositive diagnosis with results analyzed both from a Medical Anthropology and Public Health perspective. Despite a new era of antiretroviral treatment, available in Tanzania free of cost, that has given cause for hope in a change in how the disease is perceived, the book impressively underlines that being HIV-seropositive remains a great challenge and heavy burden for women in Tanzania.

Name, Shame and Blame: Criminalising Consensual Sex in Papua New Guinea

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ISBN: 9781925021219 Year: Pages: 368 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_515936 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Social Sciences --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2015-02-01 11:01:41
License: ANU Press

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This book is an exceptional contribution to our knowledge of the nexus between the criminal law and negative attitudes of society, and what effects criminalization has on the social lives of prostitutes and males who have sex with males, and whether these effects might provide evidence to support the argument for law reform.

Keywords

papua new guinea --- pacific --- hiv --- sex --- criminalisation

Disclosure Within HIV-Affected Families

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455263 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-526-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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While HIV/AIDS is a global public heath challenge, its impact is arguably greatest in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where new infections account for approximately 66% of the total number of HIV-positive persons globally. In SSA, medical, social, and economic resources are limited, thus necessitating innovative approaches to disease prevention. One of the mechanisms of prevention that is most promising occurs through HIV disclosure to family members (e.g., adult sexual partners) generally, and to children in particular. Our emphasis in this eBook is on HIV disclosure to children because it has multiple benefits, including improved adherence to antiretroviral medication treatment and understanding at an early age of the impact of sexual activity on the spread of HIV. While there is a noticeable gap in research on HIV disclosure to younger children, some of the general reasons for non-disclosure include concerns about fear of adult partners leaving relationships, and that children are too young to comprehend the severity of the situation and may tell others outside the family. Thus, it is critical to better understand how the HIV disclosure process happens (or does not happen) within HIV-affected families, as well as the best practices on how to disclose. In this eBook, we present a combination of empirical research studies and critical literature reviews that investigate the reasons for and for not disclosing HIV status within HIV-affected families and provide evidence-based practices that could be adopted by healthcare professionals to help HIV-positive parents facilitate disclosure activities within these families. This information can also be used by researchers, practitioners, and stakeholders who are in a position to influence policies on effective HIV disclosure practices, guidelines, and programs.

Why vaccines to HIV, HCV and Malaria have so far failed - Challenges to developing vaccines against immunoregulating pathogens

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199662 Year: Pages: 157 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-966-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Despite continuous progress in the development of anti-viral and anti-bacterial/parasite drugs, the high cost of medicines and the potential for re-infection, especially in high risk groups, suggest that protective vaccines to some of the most dangerous persistent infections are still highly desirable. There are no vaccines available for HIV, HCV and Malaria, and all attempts to make a broadly effective vaccine have failed so far. In this Research Topic we look into why vaccines have failed over the years, and what we have learn from these attempts. Rather than only showing positive results, this issue aims to reflect on failed efforts in vaccine development. Coming to understand our limitations will have theoretical and practical implications for the future development of vaccines to these major global disease burdens.

Keywords

Vaccine --- Infectious Disease --- HIV --- HCV --- Malaria --- influenza --- immunology --- Genetics

Role of lipids in virus assembly

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195824 Year: Pages: 91 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-582-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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RNA enveloped viruses comprise several families belonging to plus and minus strand RNA viruses, such as retroviruses, flavoviruses and orthomyxoviruses. Viruses utilize cellular lipids during critical steps of replication like entry, assembly and egress. Growing evidence indicate important roles for lipids and lipid nanodomains in virus assembly. This special topic covers key aspects of virus-membrane interactions during assembly and egress, especially those of retroviruses and Ebola virus (EBOV). Virus assembly and release involve specific and nonspecific interactions between viral proteins and membrane compartments. Retroviral Gag proteins assemble predominantly on the PM. Despite the great progress in identifying the factors that modulate retroviral Gag assembly on the PM, there are still gaps in our understanding of precise mechanisms of Gag-membrane interactions. Studies over the last two decades have focused on the mechanisms by which other retroviral Gag proteins interact with membranes during assembly. These include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV), murine leukemia virus (MLV), and human T-lymphotropic virus type (HTLV-1). Additionally, assembly of filoviruses such as EBOV also occurs on the inner leaflet of the PM. The articles published under this special topic highlight the latest understanding of the role of membrane lipids during virus assembly, egress and release.

Keywords

retroviruses --- HIV 1 --- Gag --- Matrix --- membrane --- NMR --- Ebola --- VP40

HIV-Induced Damage of B Cells and Production of HIV Neutralizing Antibodies

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454617 Year: Pages: 171 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-461-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Multiple dysfunctions take place in the B cell compartment during HIV-1 infection, comprising depletion of resting memory B cells carrying serological memory to vaccines and previously met pathogens. In addition, population of B cells characterized by the expression of exhaustion markers are enlarged during HIV-1 infection. Antibodies with the capacity to neutralize a broad range of HIV-1 isolates can be detected only in a minority of infected patients, after a year or more from acute infection. An open question is whether the inability of producing neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies is somehow linked to the B cell immunopathology observed in patients. In this research topic we invited scientists to summarize the current state of knowledge on regulation and development of B cells and antibody responses during HIV-1 infection; fifteen contributions were received comprising both reviews and original articles. The articles are related to B cell dysfunctions identified in HIV-1 infected individuals, production of different types of antibodies (neutralizing versus non neutralizing, and of different isotypes) in vivo during HIV-1 infection and the biological factors which may impact on this process, clinical potential and applications of anti-HIV antibodies and how to achieve neutralizing antibody responses to HIV-1 epitopes upon vaccination. The topic has gathered articles on front-line research undertaken in the field of B cells and antibodies in HIV-1 infection. It is our hope that the collection of articles presented in this book may be useful for new and experienced scholars in the field and add a piece to the complex puzzle of knowledge needed for the development of an HIV-1 vaccine.

Civic Insecurity: Law, Order and HIV in Papua New Guinea

Authors: ---
Book Series: Studies in State and Society in the Pacific ISBN: 9781921666612 Year: Pages: 338 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_458878 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Law --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2012-06-14 11:46:24
License: ANU Press

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Papua New Guinea has a complex ‘law and order’ problem and an entrenched epidemic of HIV. This book explores their interaction. It also probes their joint challenges and opportunities—most fundamentally for civic security, a condition that could offersome immunity to both. This book is a valuable and timely contribution to a limited but growing body of scholarship in the social and structural contexts of HIV epidemiology in Papua New Guinea. The volume offers a unique collection of interdisciplinary insights on the connections between law and order and the HIV epidemic and is presented in a manner accessible to a wide audience, scholars and lay people alike… Significantly, this is the first volume to critically examine the complex and inexorable links between HIV, gender, violence, and security within a theoretical framework thv at illuminates the challenges of the epidemic for PNG’s future cohesion and stability as a young nation…The importance of this courageous book cannot be overstated. While it communicates an urgent and potent message about the need for immediate action … it offers insightful reflections on the processes and possibilities of social transformation that undoubtedly will have enduring scholarly and practical value.&#xD;&#xD;Dr Katherine Lepani, Social Foundations of Medicine, The Australian National University.

Movement, Knowledge, Emotion

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ISBN: 9781921862397 Year: Pages: 205 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459377 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Public Health --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2012-06-14 11:46:25
License: ANU Press

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This book is about community activism around HIV/AIDS in Australia. It looks at the role that the gay community played in the social, medical and political response to the virus. Drawing conclusions about the cultural impact of social movements, the author argues that AIDS activism contributed to improving social attitudes towards gay men and lesbians in Australia, while also challenging some entrenched cultural patterns of the Australian medical system, allowing greater scope for non-medical intervention into the domain of health and illness. The book documents an important chapter in the history of public health in Australia and explores how HIV/AIDS came to be a defining issue in the history of gay and lesbian rights in Australia.

Manipulation of the host cell by viral auxiliary proteins

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194841 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-484-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Productive HIV infection requires completion of all the steps of the replication cycle, the success of which largely relying on the multiple interactions established by viral proteins with cellular partners. Indeed, cellular and viral fates are intertwined and this interplay may involve rerouting of cellular factors/pathways to the benefit of the viral life cycle. To gain a foothold into host cells, HIV has to take advantage of available cellular factories and overcome the numerous potential blocks opposed to its replication while ensuring cellular survival. Viral auxiliary proteins are a perfect paradigm to illustrate the complexity of the relationship between HIV and its host. Although these accessory proteins are mostly unnecessary for viral replication in permissive cells in vitro, they play a crucial role in regulating viral spread ex vivo in non-permissive cells and in vivo in hosts. Most accessory proteins are pleiotropic and instrumental in the counteraction of restriction factors and proteins involved in innate immune response. Several proteins of the "intrinsic" immune system that detect the presence of the assailant and initiate a subsequent immune response, as well as restriction factors that are directly devoted to arresting the replication cycle at precise steps have been characterized. Despite the numerous cellular mechanisms dedicated to preventing viral replication, HIV is able to efficiently replicate in humans. Indeed, as a master regulator of cellular machineries and processes, not only has HIV evolved strategies to avoid triggering of pattern recognition receptors, but HIV has also elaborated ways to counteract host restriction factors, thereby overcoming the hurdles that oppose efficient replication. This review collection is dedicated to the manipulation of host cells by HIV-1 and HIV-2, with a particular focus on viral accessory proteins.

Retroviruses, retroelements and their restrictions

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194018 Year: Pages: 127 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-401-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Human retroviruses, HIV and HTLV have been recognized as important pathogens because of their association with lethal diseases such as AIDS and ATL. Considerable resources and efforts have been directed at understanding the interaction between these retroviruses and their host which may provide clues as to how the infection can be controlled or prevented. Among the key scientific successes is the identification of intracellular “restriction factors” that have evolved as obstacles to the replication of pathogens including infectious retroviruses. The discovery of APOBEC, which are strong mutagens of retroviral genomes and intracellular retroelements, began a new era of intense research activities into the spectrum of intrinsic anti-HIV activity, leading to the identification of TRIM5a, BST2/Tetherin, and SAMHD1. In response, HIV has evolved several accessory genes as weaponries to evade these intracellular restriction activities. The intracellular antiretroviral defenses evolved in response to endogenous retroelements that make up more than 40% of the entire mammalian genome, and which are regarded as ancestors of infectious retroviruses. LTR-type retroelements are present in all higher eukaryotes, representing about 8% of the human genome. Non-LTR retroelements can be found at extremely high copy numbers also, with a significant portion of mammalin genomes consisting of LINEs. Mammalian genomes are modified by LINEs through insertions, but also by the indirect replication of non-autonomous retrotransposons such as SINEs. LINEs insertion was shown to have played, and continue to play important roles in genomic evolution and somatic genome mosaicism-mediated physiology. And, because retrotransposition can confer genetic diversity that is beneficial to the host, the vertebrate intrinsic immunity has evolved to support a balance between retroelement insertions that confer beneficial and those that cause deleterious gene disruptions. The articles published in this Research Topic should serve not only as valuable references for the field, but provide future topics of research for investigators that should further our understanding of the retrovirus, retroelements and their restrictions.

Keywords

Retrovirus --- Retroelement --- restriction factor --- HIV --- HTLV --- line --- APOBEC --- BST2/Tetherin --- SAMHD1

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