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Sensory Hair Cell Death and Regeneration

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450008 Year: Pages: 266 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-000-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Abstract

Sensory hair cells are the specialized mechanosensory receptors found in vertebrate auditory, vestibular, and lateral line organs that transduce vibratory and acoustic stimuli into the sensations of hearing and balance. Hair cells can be damaged due to such factors as aging, ototoxic chemicals, acoustic trauma, infection, or genetic factors. Loss of these hair cells lead to deficits in hearing and balance, and in mammals, such deficits are permanent. In contrast, non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit the capability to regenerate missing hair cells. Researchers have been examining the process of hair cell death and regeneration in animal models in an attempt to find ways of either preventing hair cell loss or stimulating the production of new hair cells in mammals, with the ultimate goal of finding new therapeutics for human sensorineural hearing and balance deficits. This has led to a wide array of research on sensory hair cells- such as understanding the factors that cause hair cell loss and finding agents that protect them from damage, elucidating the cell signaling pathways activated during hair cell death, examining the genes and cellular pathways that are regulated during the process of hair cell death and regeneration, and characterizing the functional sensory loss and recovery following acoustic or ototoxic insults to the inner ear. This research has involved cell and developmental biologists, physiologists, geneticists, bioinformaticians, and otolaryngologists. In this Research Topic, we have collated reviews of the past progress of hair cell death and regeneration studies and original research articles advancing sensory hair cell death and regeneration research into the future.

Aging, neurogenesis and neuroinflammation in hearing loss and protection

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196449 Year: Pages: 151 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-644-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Worldwide, 278 million people are estimated to have moderate to profound hearing loss. Age-related hearing loss, also known as presbyacusis, affects approximately half of the population over 60 years old, making it the second most common cause of disability in older people. Hearing loss occurs when the sensory cells and neurons of the cochlea degenerate and die. The vestibular system, which holds the sense of balance, shares a common embryonic origin with the cochlea and together conform the inner ear. Balance problems are a trait of ageing to the point that balance ability is considered a sensor of physical decline and vestibular degeneration is the most common cause of falls in the elderly. Still the molecular bases of ageing in the vestibular system have not been studied in detail. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the progression of age-related hearing loss (ARHL). Being noise the main environmental noxious agent for human hearing in the industrialized societies. There is no restorative treatment for deafness but functional replacement by means of prosthesis. Therefore, prevention and treatment of hearing loss is an unmet medical need. To develop innovative medical strategies against hearing loss, it is critical to understand the causes of ARHL and the essential pathways responsible for the manifestation of this complex disease. In this research topic, experts will discuss the stages and molecular elements of the damage and repair processes involved in ARHL, from cellular processes to molecules involved in aging. Oxidative stress takes a central stage as an essential element in the progression of injury and cell loss, and a target for cell protection strategies. Finally, the mechanisms of action and the potential of novel therapies for hair cell repair and protection will be discussed along with drug delivery strategies.

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