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Manual Asymmetries, Handedness and Motor Performance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198634 Year: Pages: 147 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-863-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The performance of most tasks with one hand, typically the right, is a uniquely human characteristic. Not only do people prefer to use one hand rather than the other, but also they usually perform tasks faster and more accurately with this hand. The study of manual asymmetries and what such performance differences between the two hands reveal about brain organization and motor function has been a topic of considerable research over the last several decades. The aim of this Research Topic is to review and further explore the origins of manual asymmetries and their relationship to handedness, unimanual and bimanual motor performance, and brain function. The articles included here involve original research conducted in humans or non-human models species, as well as theoretical perspectives, review articles, and meta-analyses.

Chapter: 'How to Attract Students’ Visual Attention' from book: Adaptive and Adaptable Learning: 11th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2016, Lyon, France, September 13-16, 2016, Proceedings (Book chapter)

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Book Series: Lecture Notes in Computer Science ISSN: 0302-9743 / 1611-3349 ISBN: 9783319451527 9783319451534 Year: Pages: 11 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-45153-4_3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-27 16:51:33
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Attracting students’ visual attention is critical in order for teachers to teach classes, communicate core concepts and emotionally connect with their students. In this paper we analyze two months of video recordings taken from a fourth grade class in a vulnerable school, where, every day, a sample of 3 students wore a mini video camera mounted on eyeglasses. We looked for scenes from the recordings where the teacher appears in the students’ visual field, and computed the average duration of each event. We found that the student’s gaze on the teacher lasted 44.9 % longer when the teacher gestured than when he did not, with an effect size (Cohen’s d) of 0.69. The data also reveals different effects for gender, subject matter, and student Grade Point Average (GPA). The effect of teacher gesturing on students with a low GPA is higher than on students’ with a high GPA. These findings may have broad significance for improving teaching practices.

Sekundäre Märkte?

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ISBN: 9783205786788 Year: Pages: 302 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_574650 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4251
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-07 11:01:12
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Few historians have followed the entire "life-cycle" of a product; especially "secondary" forms of use, transfer and alteration - for example repair works or the trade in used goods - often have been neglected. This exclusion of secondary markets and secondary product cycles seems problematic, since they were - regarding the factors of production - of a specific importance for pre-modern economy and society: for many craftsmen especially in the textile branch repair works formed a significant part of their daily business, in addition numerous people found possibilities to earn a living in fields that specialized on trading with second-hand ware or the collecting and reprocessing of scrap materials. Especially metals or glass, but also textiles (rags for paper making) were recycled to a considerable extent, since raw material was often scarce or expensive; therefore many consumers (especially members of lower urban strata) were reliant on the use of second-hand commodities and materials until the nineteenth century. My study focuses on the retail of second-hand commodities during the seventeenth and eighteenth century in the towns of Salzburg and Vienna, but it also discusses findings from other European cities. The empirical part of the study is primarily based on archival sources, but also other forms of tradition were taken into consideration. The rather fragmentary record and the (partial) "invisibility" of market actors necessitated the combination of different types of sources (e.g. contemporary literature or depictions) and methods of reconstruction (qualitative as well as quantitative), which allowed to broaden the analysis - for example to locate individuals within their everyday socioeconomic contexts.Second-hand trade - in shops, stall or on institutionalised market places - formed an important source of income for the urban labouring poor being a temporary (supplementary and occasional) or a middle- or long-term activity, especially for females and members of ethnic or religious minorities. Formalisation and regulation within urban second-hand trade, also high entrance fees or numerical limits tended to exclude several actors from engaging in authorized second-hand trading. These exclusions evoked informal engagement that means activities of licensed and partially licensed as well as of unlicensed dealers - these informal trading activities don't seem marginal, but of a specific relevance for urban second-hand trade.Second-hand trade was undoubtedly dominated by less affluent elements that were often considered only barely respectable, problems like trading with stolen or infected goods fostered ambivalent or negative contemporary perceptions. Nevertheless, second-hand markets and traders formed a substantial and vital part of the urban economy during early modern times - their utilities with respect to household strategies and daily consumption were multiple: Used goods could usually be purchased at significantly lower prices than new commodities, at the same time the second-hand trade helped to convert "unnecessary" or dispensable belongings and commodities from bequests or insolvencies into cash. But second-hand trade was not just a necessity; it also created possibilities for economic management - "cheaper" second-hand goods could be purchased instead of newly manufactured commodities, in addition material belongings that were of a stable value and easily resold functioned as a non-monetary saving strategy. The consumption of used goods was very flexible and adoptable and formed - especially for members of lower urban strata - a basal element of everyday economy. Second-hand markets offered a broad range of products that were immediately available: especially clothing (since textiles embodied quite a high exchange value during the pre-industrial period), furniture and other goods of everyday use, but also scrap materials. Second-hand markets and traders were closely connected (both personally and spatially) t

Perceiving and Acting in the Real World: From Neural Activity to Behavior

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450282 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-028-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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One remarkable ability of the human brain is to process large amounts of information about our surroundings to allow us to interact effectively with them. In everyday life, the most common way to interact with objects is by reaching, grasping, lifting and manipulating them. Although these may sound like simple tasks, the perceptual properties of the target object, such as its location, size, shape, and orientation all need to be processed in order to set the movement parameters that allow an accurate reach-to-grasp-to lift movement. Several brain areas work in concert to process this outstanding amount of visual information and drive the execution of a motor plan in just a few hundred milliseconds. How are these processes orchestrated? In developing this type of comprehensive knowledge about the interactions between objects perception and goal-directed actions, we have a window into the mechanisms underlying the functioning of the visuo-motor system. With this research topic we aim to further understand the neural mechanisms that mediate our interactions with the world. Therefore, we particularly encourage submission of papers that attempt to relate such findings to real-world situations by investigating behavioural and neural correlates of information processing related to eye-hand coordination and visually-guided actions, including reaching, grasping, and lifting movements. This topic welcomes submissions of original research using any relevant techniques and methods, from behavioural kinematics/kinetics, to neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), as well as neuropsychological studies.One remarkable ability of the human brain is to process large amounts of information about our surroundings to allow us to interact effectively with them. In everyday life, the most common way to interact with objects is by reaching, grasping, lifting and manipulating them. Although these may sound like simple tasks, the perceptual properties of the target object, such as its location, size, shape, and orientation all need to be processed in order to set the movement parameters that allow an accurate reach-to-grasp-to lift movement. Several brain areas work in concert to process this outstanding amount of visual information and drive the execution of a motor plan in just a few hundred milliseconds. How are these processes orchestrated? In developing this type of comprehensive knowledge about the interactions between objects perception and goal-directed actions, we have a window into the mechanisms underlying the functioning of the visuo-motor system. With this research topic we aim to further understand the neural mechanisms that mediate our interactions with the world. Therefore, we particularly encourage submission of papers that attempt to relate such findings to real-world situations by investigating behavioural and neural correlates of information processing related to eye-hand coordination and visually-guided actions, including reaching, grasping, and lifting movements. This topic welcomes submissions of original research using any relevant techniques and methods, from behavioural kinematics/kinetics, to neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), as well as neuropsychological studies.

Bridging the Theories of Affordances and Limb Apraxia

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452255 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-225-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Affordances are meaningful relations between the features of observed objects and the observer's action systems with its proper abilities. The notion of affordance integrates perceptual, cognitive and motor functions, so that perceiving an object, conducting cognitive operations on it, and executing motor actions with it cannot be considered as independent functions. Limb apraxia is a higher-order motor disorder that refers to disturbance of one or more of three domains: imitation of meaningless gestures, pantomime of meaningful gestures, and disturbance of interaction with objects. The first aim of the Research Topic was to put together theoretical and research contributions on affordance mechanisms to highlight their role in explaining apraxia deficits. The second aim was to clarify how studies on apraxia have implications for theories of affordances.

Untersuchungen zur Improvisation und Tradierung der Sevdalinka an Hand der sprachlichen Figuren

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Book Series: Slavistische Beitraege ISBN: 9783876900599 Year: Pages: 275 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:08
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Während die epischen Lieder bereits seit längerer Zeit Gegenstand intensiver wissenschaftlicher Forschung sind, fanden die lyrischen Lieder in letzter Zeit in stärkerem Maße Beachtung. Eine besondere Form dieser letzteren Volkslied-Liebeslyrik stellt die Sevdalinka dar, deren Hauptmotive Liebessehnsucht, -trennung und -enttäuschung, seltener Liebeserfüllung sind.

Arm and Hand Movement: Current Knowledge and Future Perspective

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195770 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-577-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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This Research Topic is devoted to arm and hand movement in health as well as in several disease conditions. It is a collection of several original research papers and reviews, clinical case studies, hypothesis and theory articles, opinions, commentaries, and methods papers that cover some important aspects of the topic from distinct scientific perspectives. We invite the readers to appreciate the range in methodologies and experimental designs that together have led to widen our understanding of this especially broad field of research.

Second hand smoke and COPD: lessons from animal studies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193165 Year: Pages: 91 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-316-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Cigarette smoke exposure is the key initiator of chronic inflammation, alveolar destruction, and the loss of alveolar blood vessels that lead to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which is comprised of emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is the major risk factor for non-smokers to develop emphysema. While the first-hand smoke is directly inhaled by smokers, passive smoking occurs when non-smokers are involuntary exposed to environmental tobacco smoke also known as second hand smoke (SHS). SHS is a mixture of 2 forms of smoke that come from burning tobacco: side stream smoke (smoke that comes from the end of a lit cigarette, pipe, or cigar) and mainstream smoke (smoke that is exhaled by a smoker). These two types of smoke have basically the same composition, however in SHS many toxic components are more concentrated than in first-hand smoke, therefore more hazardous for people’s health. Several pathological events have been implicated in the development of SHS-induced COPD, but many aspects of this pathology remain poorly understood halting the development of new advanced treatments for this detrimental disease. In this respect we have welcomed leading investigators in the field to share their research findings and provide their thoughts regarding the mechanisms of the SHS exposure-induced immune responses and inflammatory mechanisms of lung destruction in SHS-induced COPD and related comorbidities.

Die Verwendung von Bearbeitungen urheberrechtlich geschützter Werke

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Archivs für Urheber- und Medienrecht ISBN: 9783748900207 Year: Volume: 287 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5771/9783748900207 Language: de
Publisher: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-11 09:13:25
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Die vorliegende Studie beschäftigt sich mit dem Phänomen aufeinander aufbauenden Werkschaffens und den Herausforderungen, die sich daraus für das Urheberrecht stellen. Die untersuchten Lösungsansätze zeigen auf, wie das Urheberrecht diesen Herausforderungen künftig begegnen und damit insbesondere seiner wirtschaftlichen Funktion gerecht werden sollte.Als möglicher Lösungsansatz wird einerseits die extensive Auslegung vorhandener gesetzlicher Regelungen des schweizerischen Urheberrechts wie die Parodieschranke und die Zitatschranke untersucht. Andererseits werden mögliche Lösungen de lege ferenda skizziert und beurteilt. Dabei steht eine Schranke für kreative Bearbeitungen im Vordergrund; davon abgesehen wird die Einführung einer Schrankengeneralklausel und einer Schranke für nichtkommerzielle Verwendung in das schweizerische Urheberrecht untersucht.This study deals with the phenomenon of derivative works and the challenges it poses to copyright law. The author shows how the law should meet these challenges in the future; in doing so, she takes a close look at the economic function of copyright law.As a first approach, the author examines whether extensive interpretation of existing Swiss copyright limitations, such as the parody exception or the right to cite, leads to feasible solutions. As a second approach, she outlines and assesses possible solutions de lege ferenda. Her focus here lies on a new exception for creative derivatives, a fair use exception and an exception for non-commercial use for Swiss copyright law.

Navigating the Kingdom of Night

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ISBN: 9781922064585 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.20851/navigating Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2013-11-12 08:00:34
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In 2011, Amy T Matthews published End of the Night Girl, a novel which engages creatively with questions of identity politics and the ethics of fictionalising the Holocaust. Navigating the Kingdom of Night is a critical exegesis in which the author contextualises End of the Night Girl in terms of the critical debate surrounding Holocaust fiction.

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