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Mechanisms of neuroinflammation and inflammatory neurodegeneration in acute brain injury

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196913 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-691-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Mechanisms of brain-immune interactions became a cutting-edge topic in systemic neurosciences over the past years. Acute lesions of the brain parenchyma, particularly, induce a profound and highly complex neuroinflammatory reaction with similar mechanistic properties between differing disease paradigms like ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Resident microglial cells sense tissue damage and initiate inflammation, activation of the endothelial brain-immune interface promotes recruitment of systemic immune cells to the brain and systemic humoral immune mediators (e.g. complements and cytokines) enter the brain through the damaged blood-brain barrier. These cellular and humoral constituents of the neuroinflammatory reaction to brain injury contribute substantially to secondary brain damage and neurodegeneration. Diverse inflammatory cascades such as pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion of invading leukocytes and direct cell-cell-contact cytotoxicity between lymphocytes and neurons have been demonstrated to mediate the inflammatory ‘collateral damage’ in models of acute brain injury. Besides mediating neuronal cell loss and degeneration, secondary inflammatory mechanisms also contribute to functional modulation of neurons and the impact of post-lesional neuroinflammation can even be detected on the behavioral level. The contribution of several specific immune cell subpopulations to the complex orchestration of secondary neuroinflammation has been revealed just recently. However, the differential vulnerability of specific neuronal cell types and the molecular mechanisms of inflammatory neurodegeneration are still elusive. Furthermore, we are only on the verge of characterizing the control of long-term recovery and neuronal plasticity after brain damage by inflammatory pathways. Yet, a more detailed but also comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted interaction of these two supersystems is of direct translational relevance. Immunotherapeutic strategies currently shift to the center of translational research in acute CNS lesion since all clinical trials investigating direct neuroprotective therapies failed. To advance our knowledge on brain-immune communications after brain damage an interdisciplinary approach covered by cellular neuroscience as well as neuroimmunology, brain imaging and behavioral sciences is crucial to thoroughly depict the intricate mechanisms.

Molecular Diagnostics in the Detection of Neurodegenerative Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451944 Year: Pages: 90 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-194-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Neurodegeneration is characterized by the progressive loss of neural tissue that result in various neurodegeneration-initiated cerebral failures and complex diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease. All these medical conditions are accompanied by the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is an interface, separating the brain from the circulatory system and protecting the central nervous system from potentially harmful chemicals while regulating transport of essential molecules and maintaining a stable environment. Owing to the inability of the neurons to regenerate on their own after neurodegeneration or severe damage to the neural tissue, neurodegenerative disorders do not have natural cures on their own. Neuroregeneration is a viable way to curb neurodegeneration. One of the current approaches is stem cell-based therapy that has been shown to be potentially helpful for the application of neuronal cell replacement for neuroregeneration. It is vital that the neurodegenerative disorder being detected at an early stage as it can provide a chance for treatment that may be helpful to prevent further progression of the fatal disease. Thus, research has focused on developing effective non-invasive diagnostic methods for early detection of these disorders. Molecular diagnostics can provide a powerful method to detect and diagnose various neurological disorders. Such diagnosis can enhance early detection, provide subsequent medical counsel based on medical pathway, as well as to gain better insight of neurogenesis and hopefully eventual cure of the neurodegenerative diseases. With research reports, reviews, mini-reviews and commentary, this research topic covers a wide range of areas in neurodegeneration research, including diagnosis and prognosis; regulating central nervous system; biomarkers and brain injury induced neurobehavioral outcomes among other timely reports on neurodegeneration.

Monitoring Pathophysiology in the Injured Brain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454815 Year: Pages: 301 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-481-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Pathophysiological processes in brain-injured patients can be assessed with an array of methods, with a goal to identify potentially deleterious events, guide treatments and avoid further deterioration. This eBook provides an in-depth exploration into different aspects of neuro-critical care monitoring and how new tools and strategies may be utilized to improve patient outcomes.

Balloon and Stent for Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke: A New Trend for Stroke Prevention and Management

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196944 Year: Pages: 78 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-694-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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In recent years, intracranial endovascular use of Balloon and Stent has grown significantly. This issue will focus primarily on recent advances in the use of these methods today. This discussion will also highlight our improvements in understanding the disease process, and not only relying on devices to treat a patient. Wide-necked intracranial aneurysms (IA) were originally thought to be either untreatable or, at the very least, significantly challenging to treat by endovascular means due to the risk of coil protrusion and possibly parent vessel occlusion. However, this view now outdated, today and we will discuss the significant advancment in different flow diverters. The treatment of post-sub arachnoid hemorrhage vasospasm is mature now, as this issue will highlight. In addition, Intracranial atherosclerosis is still a prominent cause of stroke in various populations worldwide. This issue will summarize the challenges of risk factor modification and secondary stroke prevention by defining optimal methods. We will try to outline a new approach for intracranial angioplasty and stenting for stroke prevention. Finally, despite recent impressive increase recanalization rates in acute ischemic stroke treatment, the clinical improvement rate has remained relatively stable. This article will discuss a new means of improving patient selections using the capillary index score (CIS). The future of our specialty relies heavily on better devices, and on a deeper understanding of the disease process. The future is bright and we have already taken the first successful steps.

Looking Forward to the Future of Heparin: New Sources, Developments and Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038429494 / 9783038429500 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-950-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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Abstract

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Looking Forward to the Future of Heparin: New Sources, Developments and Applications that was published in Molecules

Keywords

thrombin inhibition --- LMWH --- antithrombin --- heparin oligosaccharides --- ternary complex --- heparin --- hepcidin --- iron homeostasis --- anemia --- heparin-induced thrombocytopenia --- diagnosis --- functional assay --- platelets --- heparin --- heparan sulphate --- TGF-? --- bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) --- growth and differentiation factor (GDF) --- GDNF --- BMP antagonists --- noggin --- sclerostin --- gremlin --- heparin --- enoxaparin --- subarachnoid hemorrhage --- edema --- brain injury --- inflammation --- cisplatin --- low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) --- ovarian cancer --- resistance --- heparin --- glycosaminoglycans --- chondroitin sulfate --- perylene diimide dyes --- dermatan sulfate --- fluorescent probe --- Heparin Red --- assay --- dermatan sulfate --- human plasma --- heparin --- alginate --- sulfated alginate --- biomaterials --- heparin --- heparan sulfate --- serglycin --- proteoglycan --- recombinant expression --- bioreactor --- theranostics --- solid lipid nanoparticles --- iron oxide nanoparticles --- heparin coating --- intestinal lymphatic absorption --- heparin --- heparin process --- manufacturing methods --- industrial --- super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) --- hyaluronic acid (HA) --- bovine serum albumin (BSA) --- Fe3O4·DA-BSA/HA --- paclitaxel (PTX) --- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) --- low-molecular-weight heparin --- dalteparin --- NMR --- LC-MS --- affinity chromatography --- danaparoid sodium --- low molecular weight glycosaminoglycans --- orthogonal multi-analytical methods --- sequence and compositional investigations --- component quantitative analysis --- heparin --- crude heparin --- NMR --- quantitative NMR --- PCA --- chemometric --- HSQC --- bovine heparin --- porcine heparin --- molecular weight --- size exclusion chromatography --- pharmacopeia --- Fondaparinux sodium --- extended physicochemical characterization --- qNMR --- single crystal X-ray structure --- reference standard --- iduronic acid conformation --- Arixtra® --- n/a --- n/a --- n/a

Iron as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases Volume 1

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280827 / 9783039280834 Year: Pages: 472 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-083-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Abstract

Iron is an essential element for almost all organisms, a cofactor playing a crucial role in a number of vital functions, including oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and respiration. However, its ability to exchange electrons renders excess iron potentially toxic, since it is capable of catalyzing the formation of highly poisonous free radicals. As a consequence, iron homeostasis is tightly controlled by sophisticated mechanisms that have been partially elucidated. Because of its biological importance, numerous disorders have been recently linked to the deregulation of iron homeostasis, which include not only the typical disorders of iron overload and deficiency but also cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. This leads iron metabolism to become an interesting therapeutic target for novel pharmacological treatments against these diseases. Several therapies are currently under development for hematological disorders, while other are being considered for different pathologies. The therapeutic targeting under study includes the hepcidin/ferroportin axis for the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis, complex cytosolic machineries for the regulation of the intracellular iron status and its association with oxidative damage, and reagents exploiting proteins of iron metabolism such as ferritin and transferrin receptor. A promising potential target is a recently described form of programmed cell death named ferroptosis, in which the role of iron is essential but not completely clarified. This Special Issue has the aim to summarize the state-of-the-art, and the latest findings published in the iron field, as well as to elucidate future directions.

Keywords

cinnamic acid derivatives --- soybean seed ferritin --- iron release --- binding ability --- Fe2+-chelating activity --- reducibility --- adverse event profile --- anaemia --- bioengineering --- labile iron --- intravenous iron --- iron-carbohydrate complex --- iron processing --- iron metabolism --- infection --- innate immunity --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- anemia of inflammation --- pharmaceutical targets --- iron deficiency anemia --- nutrient iron --- oral iron therapy --- FeSO4 --- NaFeEDTA --- non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) --- developing countries --- Indonesia --- neurodegeneration --- mitochondria --- therapy --- heme --- haem --- Iron-sulfur --- Friedreich Ataxia --- Oxidative stress --- Iron chelators --- iron deficiency --- anemia --- cancer --- hepcidin --- patient blood management --- malaria --- iron deficiency --- hepcidin --- TNF --- children --- Africa --- Anemia --- iron deficiency --- oral iron salts --- intravenous iron --- Sucrosomial® iron --- M cells --- bioavailability --- tolerability --- efficacy --- iron --- gut microbiota --- iron supplementation --- iron transporters --- mucosal immunity --- SCFA --- intestinal inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) --- colorectal cancer --- oxidative stress --- anaemia --- cardiovascular disease --- chronic kidney disease --- IV iron therapy --- bone homeostasis --- iron overload --- iron deficiency --- osteoclast --- osteoblast --- osteoporosis --- neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation --- iron chelation therapy --- multifunctional iron chelators --- fluorescent iron chelator --- 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone --- fluorophore --- rhodamine --- membrane interactions --- bacteria --- antibacterial activity --- histidine --- iron --- anemia --- oxidative stress --- kidney --- chelation --- iron --- retina --- age-related macular degeneration (AMD) --- iron --- lipid --- obesity --- cancer --- neurodegeneration --- iron chelation --- phlebotomy --- NCOA4 --- ferritinophagy --- iron homeostasis --- erythropoiesis --- ferroptosis --- cancer --- Tfr2 --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- erythropoiesis --- SNC --- ferritin --- iron mobilization --- chaotropes --- flavin nucleotide --- electron transfer --- kinetics --- ferritin --- iron --- iron delivery --- nanotechnology --- nanocage --- drug delivery --- inflammation --- serum biomarker --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- hemochromatosis --- anemia --- hepcidin --- iron deficiency anemia --- iron dextran --- neonatal period --- pig --- supplementation --- Alzheimer’s disease --- neuroinflammation --- neurodegeneration --- cytokines --- neuroimmune responses --- iron --- genetic hemochromatosis --- non transferrin bound iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- venesections --- Anemia of chronic disease --- anemia of inflammation --- hepcidin --- anti-hepcidin therapy --- iron supplementation --- macrophage --- central nurse macrophage --- red pulp macrophage --- Kupffer cell --- iron metabolism --- erythropoiesis --- erythroblastic islands --- erythrophagocytosis --- inflammation --- iron homeostasis --- lung diseases --- oxygen sensing --- hypoxia --- ferritin --- hereditary hyperferritinemia --- hereditary hypoferritinemia --- iron metabolism --- cataracts syndrome --- neurodegenerative disease --- n/a --- iron --- neurodegeneration --- NBIA --- hepcidin --- iron --- lung --- acute lung injury --- COPD --- lung infection --- cystic fibrosis --- iron --- anaemia --- infection --- malaria --- immunity --- brain development --- growth --- microbiome --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- iron supplementation --- infants --- children --- low and middle income countries --- liver --- iron --- hepcidin --- Mek/Erk --- Hfe --- Bmp/Smad --- iron --- mycobacteria --- immunity --- Alzheimer’s disease --- iron homeostasis --- ferroptosis --- senescence --- chelators --- macrophages --- iron --- metabolism --- inflammation --- iron --- ferritin --- acute kidney injury --- chronic kidney disease --- vascular calcification --- iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- Interleukin-6 --- infection --- rheumatoid arthritis --- iron homeostasis --- iron absorption --- non-haem iron --- flavonoids --- developmental --- iron deficiency anemia --- neonatal --- transferrin receptor --- treatment --- hemochromatosis --- HFE --- natural history --- T lymphocytes --- MHC --- CD8+ T cells --- prevention --- iron homeostasis --- hepcidin --- protein binding --- peritoneal dialysis --- iron --- hepcidin --- iron regulatory proteins --- cardiomyocyte --- chronic heart failure --- pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells --- pulmonary arterial hypertension --- iron --- brain --- neurophysiology --- cognition --- social behavior --- didox --- iron chelators --- antitumor compound --- iron metabolism --- RRM2 --- SLC40A1 --- ferroportin --- iron overload --- non-HFE --- ferritin --- hemochromatosis --- iron --- chelation --- neurodegenerative diseases --- pituitary --- brain --- hemopexin --- heme homeostasis --- iron homeostasis --- hemolysis --- haptoglobin --- ferroptosis --- inflammation --- biomarker --- heme oxygenase --- liver --- microbiome --- trauma --- hemorrhage --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- iron homeostasis --- ferroportin --- n/a

Iron as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases Volume 2

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039281145 / 9783039281152 Year: Pages: 440 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-115-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Abstract

Iron is an essential element for almost all organisms, a cofactor playing a crucial role in a number of vital functions, including oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and respiration. However, its ability to exchange electrons renders excess iron potentially toxic, since it is capable of catalyzing the formation of highly poisonous free radicals. As a consequence, iron homeostasis is tightly controlled by sophisticated mechanisms that have been partially elucidated. Because of its biological importance, numerous disorders have been recently linked to the deregulation of iron homeostasis, which include not only the typical disorders of iron overload and deficiency but also cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. This leads iron metabolism to become an interesting therapeutic target for novel pharmacological treatments against these diseases. Several therapies are currently under development for hematological disorders, while other are being considered for different pathologies. The therapeutic targeting under study includes the hepcidin/ferroportin axis for the regulation of systemic iron homeostasis, complex cytosolic machineries for the regulation of the intracellular iron status and its association with oxidative damage, and reagents exploiting proteins of iron metabolism such as ferritin and transferrin receptor. A promising potential target is a recently described form of programmed cell death named ferroptosis, in which the role of iron is essential but not completely clarified. This Special Issue has the aim to summarize the state-of-the-art, and the latest findings published in the iron field, as well as to elucidate future directions.

Keywords

cinnamic acid derivatives --- soybean seed ferritin --- iron release --- binding ability --- Fe2+-chelating activity --- reducibility --- adverse event profile --- anaemia --- bioengineering --- labile iron --- intravenous iron --- iron-carbohydrate complex --- iron processing --- iron metabolism --- infection --- innate immunity --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- anemia of inflammation --- pharmaceutical targets --- iron deficiency anemia --- nutrient iron --- oral iron therapy --- FeSO4 --- NaFeEDTA --- non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) --- developing countries --- Indonesia --- neurodegeneration --- mitochondria --- therapy --- heme --- haem --- Iron-sulfur --- Friedreich Ataxia --- Oxidative stress --- Iron chelators --- iron deficiency --- anemia --- cancer --- hepcidin --- patient blood management --- malaria --- iron deficiency --- hepcidin --- TNF --- children --- Africa --- Anemia --- iron deficiency --- oral iron salts --- intravenous iron --- Sucrosomial® iron --- M cells --- bioavailability --- tolerability --- efficacy --- iron --- gut microbiota --- iron supplementation --- iron transporters --- mucosal immunity --- SCFA --- intestinal inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) --- colorectal cancer --- oxidative stress --- anaemia --- cardiovascular disease --- chronic kidney disease --- IV iron therapy --- bone homeostasis --- iron overload --- iron deficiency --- osteoclast --- osteoblast --- osteoporosis --- neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation --- iron chelation therapy --- multifunctional iron chelators --- fluorescent iron chelator --- 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone --- fluorophore --- rhodamine --- membrane interactions --- bacteria --- antibacterial activity --- histidine --- iron --- anemia --- oxidative stress --- kidney --- chelation --- iron --- retina --- age-related macular degeneration (AMD) --- iron --- lipid --- obesity --- cancer --- neurodegeneration --- iron chelation --- phlebotomy --- NCOA4 --- ferritinophagy --- iron homeostasis --- erythropoiesis --- ferroptosis --- cancer --- Tfr2 --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- erythropoiesis --- SNC --- ferritin --- iron mobilization --- chaotropes --- flavin nucleotide --- electron transfer --- kinetics --- ferritin --- iron --- iron delivery --- nanotechnology --- nanocage --- drug delivery --- inflammation --- serum biomarker --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- hemochromatosis --- anemia --- hepcidin --- iron deficiency anemia --- iron dextran --- neonatal period --- pig --- supplementation --- Alzheimer’s disease --- neuroinflammation --- neurodegeneration --- cytokines --- neuroimmune responses --- iron --- genetic hemochromatosis --- non transferrin bound iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- venesections --- Anemia of chronic disease --- anemia of inflammation --- hepcidin --- anti-hepcidin therapy --- iron supplementation --- macrophage --- central nurse macrophage --- red pulp macrophage --- Kupffer cell --- iron metabolism --- erythropoiesis --- erythroblastic islands --- erythrophagocytosis --- inflammation --- iron homeostasis --- lung diseases --- oxygen sensing --- hypoxia --- ferritin --- hereditary hyperferritinemia --- hereditary hypoferritinemia --- iron metabolism --- cataracts syndrome --- neurodegenerative disease --- n/a --- iron --- neurodegeneration --- NBIA --- hepcidin --- iron --- lung --- acute lung injury --- COPD --- lung infection --- cystic fibrosis --- iron --- anaemia --- infection --- malaria --- immunity --- brain development --- growth --- microbiome --- hepcidin --- ferritin --- iron supplementation --- infants --- children --- low and middle income countries --- liver --- iron --- hepcidin --- Mek/Erk --- Hfe --- Bmp/Smad --- iron --- mycobacteria --- immunity --- Alzheimer’s disease --- iron homeostasis --- ferroptosis --- senescence --- chelators --- macrophages --- iron --- metabolism --- inflammation --- iron --- ferritin --- acute kidney injury --- chronic kidney disease --- vascular calcification --- iron --- hepcidin --- ferroportin --- Interleukin-6 --- infection --- rheumatoid arthritis --- iron homeostasis --- iron absorption --- non-haem iron --- flavonoids --- developmental --- iron deficiency anemia --- neonatal --- transferrin receptor --- treatment --- hemochromatosis --- HFE --- natural history --- T lymphocytes --- MHC --- CD8+ T cells --- prevention --- iron homeostasis --- hepcidin --- protein binding --- peritoneal dialysis --- iron --- hepcidin --- iron regulatory proteins --- cardiomyocyte --- chronic heart failure --- pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells --- pulmonary arterial hypertension --- iron --- brain --- neurophysiology --- cognition --- social behavior --- didox --- iron chelators --- antitumor compound --- iron metabolism --- RRM2 --- SLC40A1 --- ferroportin --- iron overload --- non-HFE --- ferritin --- hemochromatosis --- iron --- chelation --- neurodegenerative diseases --- pituitary --- brain --- hemopexin --- heme homeostasis --- iron homeostasis --- hemolysis --- haptoglobin --- ferroptosis --- inflammation --- biomarker --- heme oxygenase --- liver --- microbiome --- trauma --- hemorrhage --- iron metabolism --- hepcidin --- iron homeostasis --- ferroportin --- n/a

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