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Human Polyomaviruses and Papillomaviruses

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ISBN: 9783038972204 9783038972211 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-221-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-21 09:25:07
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Abstract

The interest in human polyomaviruses (HPyV) has seen a renaissance because of new species that have been isolated and their previously unknown association with diseases. Likewise, the increasing evidence for the association of human papillomaviruses (HPV) with oropharyngeal cancer has sparked the attention of researchers and clinicians. The Special Issue “Human Polyomaviruses and Papillomaviruses” presents studies describing the nuclear egress of BK polyomavirus mediated by the viral agnoprotein and the cellular -SNAP protein. In addition, a study examines the promoter activity of two different variants of human polyomavirus 9 in different cell lines. This Special Issue offers an interesting perspective on the epidemiology of HR-HPV in different cancers and on the mechanisms by which these viruses target host cell proteins to replicate their genome, express their genes, interfere with autophagy, and induce cancer. Other topics that are highlighted include the role of co-factors, such as smoking and co-infection, novel therapeutic strategies, and surface immunoregulatory proteins, chemokines, and cytokines as possible biomarkers to determine the stage of a tumor and to predict clinical outcomes.

Interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi with Host Cells

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193370 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-337-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2013-09-03 13:00:53
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Abstract

Trypanosoma cruzi is a pathogenic protozoan of the Trypanosomatidade Family, which is the etiological agent of Chagas’ disease. Chagas’ disease stands out for being endemic among countries in Latin America, affecting about 15 million people. Recently, Chagas has become remarkable in European countries as well due to cases of transmission via infected blood transfusion. An important factor that has exacerbated the epidemiological picture in Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela is infection after the oral intake of contaminated foods such as sugar cane, açai and bacaba juices. Trypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular protozoan that exhibits a complex life cycle, involving multiple developmental stages found in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. In vertebrate hosts, the trypomastigote form invades a large variety of nucleated cells using multiple mechanisms. The invasion process involves several steps: (a) attraction of the protozoan to interact with the host cell surface; (b) parasite-host cell recognition; (c) adhesion of the parasite to the host cell surface; (d) cell signalling events that culminate in the internalization of the parasite through endocytic processes; (e) biogenesis of a large vacuole where the parasite is initially located, and is also known as parasitophorous vacuole (PV); (f) participation of endocytic pathway components in the internalization process; (g) participation of cytoskeleton components in the internalization process; (h) transformation of the trypomastigote into the amastigote form within the PV; (i) lysis of the membrane of the PV; (j) multiplication of amastigotes within the host cell in direct contact with cell structures and organelles; (k) transformation of amastigotes into trypomastigotes, and (l) rupture of the host cell releasing trypomastigotes into the extracellular space. The kinetics of the interaction process and even the fate of the parasite within the cell vary according to the nature of the host cell and its state of immunological activation.

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