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Consciousness and Moral Status

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Book Series: Routledge Focus on Philosophy ISBN: 9781138221611 9781315396347 Year: Pages: 122 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-23 11:01:59
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In this book Joshua Shepherd presents a systematic account of the value present within conscious experience. This account emphasizes not only
the nature of consciousness, but also the importance of items within
experience such as affect, valence, and the complex overall shape of
particular valuable experiences. Shepherd also relates this account to difficult
cases involving non-humans and humans with disorders of consciousness,
arguing that the value of consciousness influences and partially explains
the degree of moral status a being possesses, without fully determining
it. The upshot is a deeper understanding of both the moral importance of
phenomenal consciousness and its relations to moral status.
This book will be of great interest to philosophers and students of ethics,
bioethics, philosophy of psychology, philosophy of mind, and cognitive
science.

Peopled Landscapes (Terra Australis 34)

Authors: ---
Book Series: Terra Australis ISBN: 9781921862724 Year: Pages: 472 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459438 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Geography --- Archaeology
Added to DOAB on : 2012-06-14 11:46:25
License: ANU Press

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This impressive collection celebrates the work of Peter Kershaw, a key figure in the field of Australian palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Over almost half a century his research helped reconceptualize ecology in Australia, creating a detailed understanding of environmental change in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Within a biogeographic framework one of his exceptional contributions was to explore the ways that Aboriginal people may have modified the landscape through the effects of anthropogenic burning. These ideas have had significant impacts on thinking within the fields of geomorphology, biogeography, archaeology, anthropology and history. Papers presented here continue to explore the dynamism of landscape change in Australia and the contribution of humans to those transformations. The volume is structured in two sections. The first examines evidence for human engagement with landscape, focusing on Australia and Papua New Guinea but also dealing with the human/environmental histories of Europe and Asia. The second section contains papers that examine palaeoecology and present some of the latest research into environmental change in Australia and New Zealand. Individually these papers, written by many of Australia’s prominent researchers in these fields, are significant contributions to our knowledge of Quaternary landscapes and human land use. But Peopled Landscapes also signifies the disciplinary entanglement that is archaeological and biogeographic research in this region, with archaeologists and environmental scientists contributing to both studies of human land use and palaeoecology. Peopled Landscapes reveals the interdisciplinary richness of Quaternary research in the Australasian region as well as the complexity and richness of the entangled environmental and human pasts of these lands.

Spatial memory - a unique window into healthy and pathological ageing

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193868 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-386-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The global population aged over 60 is set to rise dramatically in the coming decades. In many countries, the older population now faces the prospect of spending a quarter of their lives aged over 65, and a significant proportion will have to cope with cognitive decline associated with normal ageing or with dementia disorders. Given that these fundamental demographic changes will pose a significant challenge to health care systems, a detailed understanding of age-related cognitive and neurobiological changes is essential in helping elderly populations maintain cognitive performance. In addition, developing sensitive biomarkers to identify those at risk of developing dementia is crucial for early and effective interventions. To make inferences about the ageing process from the animal model back to the human, rigorous behavioral paradigms must be used to ensure that the same function is being examined across species. Given that similar navigational paradigms can easily be applied to humans and animals, recent years have seen an expansion of studies attempting to bridge the gap between age-related changes in animal and human spatial cognition. These studies begin to suggest that disruptions in spatial computations are among the earliest indicators of impending cognitive decline. In addition, although many animal studies have identified pathological mechanisms with paradigms involving spatial navigation, these mechanisms support many nonspatial cognitive functions as well. As a consequence, a successful characterization of how spatial processing changes in the ageing brain could reveal fundamental effects of cognitive ageing that could inform about general mechanisms underlying decline in perception, mnemonic processing and multisensory integration.

How nature shaped echolocation in animals

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193479 Year: Pages: 207 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-347-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Echolocation has evolved in different groups of animals, from bats and cetaceans to birds and humans, and enables localization and tracking of objects in a dynamic environment, where light levels may be very low or absent. Nature has shaped echolocation, an active sense that engages audiomotor feedback systems, which operates in diverse environments and situations. Echolocation production and perception vary across species, and signals are often adapted to the environment and task. In the last several decades, researchers have been studying the echolocation behavior of animals, both in the air and underwater, using different methodologies and perspectives. The result of these studies has led to rich knowledge on sound production mechanisms, directionality of the sound beam, signal design, echo reception and perception. Active control over echolocation signal production and the mechanisms for echo processing ultimately provide animals with an echoic scene or image of their surroundings. Sonar signal features directly influence the information available for the echolocating animal to perceive images of its environment. In many echolocating animals, the information processed through echoes elicits a reaction in motor systems, including adjustments in subsequent echolocation signals. We are interested in understanding how echolocating animals deal with different environments (e.g. clutter, light levels), tasks, distance to targets or objects, different prey types or other food sources, presence of conspecifics or certain predators, ambient and anthropogenic noise. In recent years, some researchers have presented new data on the origins of echolocation, which can provide a hint of its evolution. Theoreticians have addressed several issues that bear on echolocation systems, such as frequency or time resolution, target localization and beam-forming mechanisms. In this Research Topic we compiled recent work that elucidates how echolocation – from sound production, through echolocation signals to perception- has been shaped by nature functioning in different environments and situations. We strongly encouraged comparative approaches that would deepen our understanding of the processes comprising this active sense.

The Functional Organization of the Auditory System

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450619 Year: Pages: 330 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-061-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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This eBook comprises s series of original research and review articles dealing with the anatomical, genetic, and physiological organization of the auditory system from humans to monkeys and mice.

Brain Asymmetry of Structure And/Or Function

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ISBN: 9783038425502 9783038425519 Year: Pages: VIII, 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-551-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-28 13:57:29
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This edited book brings together research reports on the asymmetry of brain function in various species, including humans, dogs, birds, lizards and bees. As shown in a wide range of species, and, as we now know, not solely in humans, the left and right sides of the brain process information in different ways and control different responses or patterns of behaviour. Since this discovery, many new methods have become available to reveal the processes involved in the development, function and evolution of this important attribute of the brain. Chapters consider the evidence for asymmetry of sensory receptors, left–right differences in information processing and asymmetrical control of behaviour. The latter includes lateralization of bird song and use of the magnetic compass in navigation. Other chapters report studies on handedness, hemispheric asymmetries in emotional processing and perception of symmetry in humans. The importance of the degree, or strength, of asymmetry is discussed and the conclusion is that asymmetry of the brain enhances its efficiency. Other chapters provide evidence that early experience influences the development of asymmetry. All of the contributors have strong backgrounds in research and they discuss up-to-date discoveries on lateralized brain and behaviour.

Declaración Universal sobre Bioética y Derechos Humanos de la Unesco y la discapacidad

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Col·lecció de Bioètica ISBN: 9788447538393 Year: Pages: 120 Language: Spanish
Publisher: Publicacions i Edicions de la Universitat de Barcelona
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-16 11:51:15
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La Unesco propugna que la Declaración Universal sobre Bioética y Derechos Humanos puede y debe ser considerada como un marco de principios y pautas bioéticas que se deben aplicar, también, en el tratamiento de las cuestiones de la discapacidad. Este libro aporta claves que permiten a los estados y al resto de agentes implicados adoptar la perspectiva de la diversidad funcional y las capacidades diferenciadas que evite la exclusión, desde un enfo­que basado en los derechos humanos.

Document sobre envelliment i vulnerabilitat

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Col·lecció de Bioètica ISBN: 9788447540532 Year: Pages: 64 Language: Catalan, Spanish, English
Publisher: Publicacions i Edicions de la Universitat de Barcelona
Subject: Philosophy --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-22 14:11:48
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Els plantejaments i les recomanacions que es fan en aquest Document desitgen promoure millores en la qualitat de vida de les persones grans, fomentant la presa de decisions prèvies —tant individuals com socials— i reivindicant la promoció dels valors de solidaritat i de no-discriminació.

Chocolate and Health: Friend or Foe?

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454112 Year: Pages: 77 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-411-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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In the ancient past, cocoa has been appreciated as a high-calorie food to boost energy in soldiers and for its undefined medicinal and mystical properties. During other times, chocolate has been considered as the forbidden “food of God”: a treasure of pleasure for the mind and the soul. The overall perception of the consumer for chocolate was of a “charming” and appealing food with lots of negative aspects related to high sugar content leading to consider chocolate as “junk food” for its “obesigen” calories. Recently, in association with the renewed interest of nutrition science in alternative source of health-promoting foods and ingredients, a large body of research has been conducted to unravel the pro and cons of cocoa in relation to human health. Epidemiological evidences indicate that cocoa consumption helps preventing cardiovascular disease for its high content in bioactive flavonoids. Clinical trials show that chocolate consumption might improve vascular function, decreasing platelet aggregation and display an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. The putative protective action of cocoa seems to be multi-factorial and involving different aspects of vascular, antioxidant and endothelial function. However, the mechanism(s) that account for the benefits of cocoa it is still unclear.The aim of this Research Topic is therefore to provide the reader with an objective picture of the state of art on the association between cocoa and health, mainly through the evidences of human trials; overwhelmingly considered the golden standard for nutritional science. The Research Topic will cover the analysis of the manufacturing processes of the chocolate and the antioxidant effects in humans as well as the majority of the putative health effects of chocolate and cocoa, such as anti-inflammatory properties, effect on immunity, platelet aggregation, blood pressure, endothelial function and cognitive behavior. Unraveling the functional properties of cocoa will help to understand if the 'food of God' is a primordial gift for the health of mankind.

Desapariciones forzadas de niños en Europa y Latinoamérica: del convenio de la ONU a las búsquedas a través del ADN

Authors: ---
Book Series: Col·lecció de Bioètica ISBN: 9788447538522 Year: Pages: 368 Language: Spanish
Publisher: Publicacions i Edicions de la Universitat de Barcelona
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-15 14:38:16
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Los análisis genéticos y el convenio de la ONU contra las desa­pariciones forzadas son dos poderosas herramientas que per­miten esclarecer los orígenes biológicos y luchar contra el robo de bebés y las desapariciones forzadas de niños. Estos delitos, de una gravedad manifiesta, requieren ser examinados desde sus vertientes jurídica, filosófica, política y bioética, porque, ante una situación tan compleja y que afecta a tantas personas, una so­ciedad responsable está obligada a tomar medidas. El presente libro, que analiza estas cuestiones tanto en el contexto europeo como en el latinoamericano, es obra de especialistas vinculados a las instituciones y los comités más representativos en la materia.

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