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HIV-Induced Damage of B Cells and Production of HIV Neutralizing Antibodies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454617 Year: Pages: 171 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-461-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Abstract

Multiple dysfunctions take place in the B cell compartment during HIV-1 infection, comprising depletion of resting memory B cells carrying serological memory to vaccines and previously met pathogens. In addition, population of B cells characterized by the expression of exhaustion markers are enlarged during HIV-1 infection. Antibodies with the capacity to neutralize a broad range of HIV-1 isolates can be detected only in a minority of infected patients, after a year or more from acute infection. An open question is whether the inability of producing neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies is somehow linked to the B cell immunopathology observed in patients. In this research topic we invited scientists to summarize the current state of knowledge on regulation and development of B cells and antibody responses during HIV-1 infection; fifteen contributions were received comprising both reviews and original articles. The articles are related to B cell dysfunctions identified in HIV-1 infected individuals, production of different types of antibodies (neutralizing versus non neutralizing, and of different isotypes) in vivo during HIV-1 infection and the biological factors which may impact on this process, clinical potential and applications of anti-HIV antibodies and how to achieve neutralizing antibody responses to HIV-1 epitopes upon vaccination. The topic has gathered articles on front-line research undertaken in the field of B cells and antibodies in HIV-1 infection. It is our hope that the collection of articles presented in this book may be useful for new and experienced scholars in the field and add a piece to the complex puzzle of knowledge needed for the development of an HIV-1 vaccine.

New Advances on Zika Virus Research

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ISBN: 9783038977643 Year: Pages: 552 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-765-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne member of the Flaviviridae family that historically has been associated with mild febrile illness. However, the recent outbreaks in Brazil in 2015 and its rapid spread throughout South and Central America and the Caribbean, together with its association with severe neurological disorders—including fetal microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults—have changed the historic perspective of ZIKV. Currently, ZIKV is considered an important public health concern that has the potential to affect millions of people worldwide. The significance of ZIKV in human health and the lack of approved vaccines and/or antiviral drugs to combat ZIKV infection have triggered a global effort to develop effective countermeasures to prevent and/or treat ZIKV infection. In this Special Issue of Viruses, we have assembled a collection of 32 research and review articles that cover the more recent advances on ZIKV molecular biology, replication and transmission, virus–host interactions, pathogenesis, epidemiology, vaccine development, antivirals, and viral diagnosis.

Keywords

Ziks virus --- silvestrol --- antiviral --- eIF4A --- hepatocytes --- flavivirus --- arbovirus --- Zika --- sexual transmission --- testis --- prostate --- Zika virus --- ZIKV --- rhesus macaques --- Non-human primates --- NHP --- infection --- natural history --- Asian-lineage --- African-lineage --- zika virus --- ZIKV–host interactions --- viral pathogenesis --- cell surface receptors --- antiviral responses --- viral counteraction --- cytopathic effects --- microcephaly --- ZIKV-associated neurologic disorders --- Zika virus --- serology --- flavivirus --- microsphere immunoassay --- validated --- optimised --- dengue virus --- ZIKV --- reporter virus --- cryptic promoter silencing --- full-length molecular clone --- subgenomic replicon --- plasmid toxicity --- Zika virus --- dengue viruses --- flavivirus --- ELISA --- indirect immunofluorescence --- plaque reduction neutralization test --- polymerase chain reaction --- cross-reactions --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- infectious cDNA --- replication --- gene expression --- neuropathogenesis --- viral genetic variation --- host genetic variation --- flavivirus --- Zika virus --- therapy --- host-directed antivirals --- Aedes aegypti --- RNA-seq --- insecticide resistance --- Zika virus --- detoxification and immune system responses --- Zika virus --- mosquito-borne flavivirus --- emerging arbovirus --- outbreak control --- molecular diagnostics --- laboratory preparedness --- assay standardization --- external quality assessment --- EQA --- QCMD --- flavivirus --- eye --- zika virus --- blood-retinal barrier --- ocular --- innate response --- Zika virus --- pregnancy --- fetal infection --- congenital Zika syndrome --- Asian lineage --- Zika virus --- Full-length cDNA infectious clones --- Bacterial artificial chromosome --- NS2A protein --- Zika virus --- neural progenitor cells --- neurons --- Zika virus --- antivirals --- therapeutics --- research models and tools --- flavivirus --- Zika virus (ZIKV) --- reverse genetics --- infectious clone --- full-length molecular clone --- bacterial artificial chromosome --- replicon --- infectious RNA --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- arbovirus --- sexual transmission --- host genetic variation --- immune response --- Zika virus --- flaviviruses --- vaccines --- virus like particles --- clinical trials --- ZIKV --- NS1 protein --- Zika virus --- diagnosis --- monoclonal antibodies --- ELISA --- zika virus --- placenta cells --- microglia cells --- siRNA --- TLR7/8 --- Zika --- viral evolution --- genetic variability --- Bayesian analyses --- Zika virus --- reverse genetics --- infectious cDNA --- Tet-inducible --- MR766 --- FSS13025 --- flavivirus --- ZIKV --- NS5 --- type I IFN antagonist --- point-of-care diagnostics --- isothermal nucleic acid amplification --- nucleic acid computation --- nucleic acid strand exchange --- zika virus --- mosquito --- mosquito surveillance --- multiplex nucleic acid detection --- boolean logic-processing nucleic acid probes --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- astrocytomas --- dsRNA --- viral fitness --- antiviral --- heme-oxygenase 1 --- Zika virus --- viral replication --- Zika virus --- antiviral compounds --- neural cells --- viral replication --- flavivirus --- Zika virus --- viral persistence --- testicular cells --- testes --- Zika virus --- prM-E proteins --- viral pathogenicity --- virus attachment --- viral replication --- viral permissiveness --- viral survival --- apoptosis --- cytopathic effects --- mutagenesis --- chimeric viruses --- human brain glial cells --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- microRNAs --- neurons --- neuroinflammation --- anti-viral immunity --- Zika virus --- dengue virus --- secondary infections --- cross-reactions --- IgA --- IgG avidity tests

Breastfeeding and Human Lactation

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ISBN: 9783038979302 / 9783038979319 Year: Pages: 450 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-931-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Abstract

Human lactation has evolved to produce a milk composition that is uniquely-designed for the human infant. Not only does human milk optimize infant growth and development, it also provides protection from infection and disease. More recently, the importance of human milk and breastfeeding in the programming of infant health has risen to the fore. Anchoring of infant feeding in the developmental origins of health and disease has led to a resurgence of research focused in this area. Milk composition is highly variable both between and within mothers. Indeed the distinct maternal human milk signature, including its own microbiome, is influenced by environmental factors, such as diet, health, body composition and geographic residence. An understanding of these changes will lead to unravelling the adaptation of milk to the environment and its impact on the infant. In terms of the promotion of breastfeeding, health economics and epidemiology is instrumental in shaping public health policy and identifying barriers to breastfeeding. Further, basic research is imperative in order to design evidence-based interventions to improve both breastfeeding duration and women’s breastfeeding experience.

Keywords

human milk --- breastfed infants --- body composition --- anthropometrics --- milk intake --- bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy --- ultrasound skinfolds --- maternal factors --- infant --- feeding --- preterm --- premature --- bottle --- human milk --- breastfeeding --- nipple shield --- infant feeding --- choline --- phosphocholine --- glycerophosphocholine --- lactation --- human milk --- infants --- adequate intake --- dietary recommendations --- Canada --- Cambodia --- breast milk --- galactogogues --- mothers of preterm infants --- breastfeeding --- attitudes --- knowledge --- midwifery --- formula supplementation --- justification of supplementation --- maternal wellbeing --- maternal distress --- post-partum distress --- breastfeeding support --- paternal role --- partner support --- infant --- Ireland --- passive immunity --- antibodies --- lactation --- peptidomics --- prematurity --- proteolysis --- breast milk --- preterm infant --- enteral nutrition --- lipids --- omega-3 fatty acids --- omega-6 fatty acids --- Docosahexaenoic acid --- Arachidonic acid --- long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids --- pregnancy --- breast milk --- lactation --- maternal diet --- n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid --- docosahexaenoic acid --- zinc deficiency --- plasma zinc --- lactating women --- zinc supplementation --- Quito --- Ecuador --- Andean region --- GDM --- lactation --- thyroid --- triiodothyronine --- thyroxine --- thyroid antibodies --- breastfeeding --- knowledge --- practice --- barriers --- social support --- professional support --- raw breast milk --- cytomegalovirus --- milk-acquired infections --- preterm infant --- adipokines --- adiponectin --- leptin --- breastfeeding --- infant --- body composition --- bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy --- ultrasound skinfolds --- human milk --- lactation --- human lactation --- expressing --- milk synthesis --- fat synthesis --- human milk --- milk metabolites --- lactation --- milk metabolomics --- human milk --- breastfeeding --- lactation --- lipids --- lipidomics --- mass spectrometry --- chromatography --- NMR spectroscopy --- human milk --- sex-specificity --- infant growth --- early life nutrition --- postnatal outcomes --- breastfeeding --- breast milk --- human milk --- colostrum --- IgA --- HGF --- TGF-? --- growth factors --- geographical location --- human milk --- potassium --- sodium --- ICP-OES --- ion selective electrode --- lactoferrin --- human milk --- infection --- immunity --- antisecretory factor --- human milk --- breast milk --- breastfeeding --- inflammation --- lactoferrin --- candida --- human milk --- milk cells --- immune cells --- antimicrobial proteins --- human milk --- breastfeeding --- ethnicity --- composition --- diet --- responsive feeding --- breastfeeding --- breastmilk --- babywearing --- co-sleeping --- mother–infant interaction --- feeding cues --- maternal responsiveness --- mother–infant physical contact --- proximal care --- fatty acids --- long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids --- endocannabinoids --- infant health --- breast milk --- casein --- whey --- protein --- breastfeeding --- infant --- body composition --- bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy --- ultrasound skinfolds --- human milk --- calculated daily intakes --- lactation --- human milk --- metabolites --- microbiome --- mode of delivery --- caesarean section --- proton nuclear magnetic resonance --- breastfeeding --- human milk composition --- body composition --- maternal diet --- infant growth --- appetite regulation --- N-acylethanolamines --- OEA --- SEA --- PEA --- breastfeeding --- human milk composition --- obesity --- Breastfeeding --- human lactation --- lactation --- human milk --- breast milk --- milk composition

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