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Der Staatssektor in der Input-Output-Rechnung

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Book Series: Schriften des Rheinisch-Westfälischen Instituts für Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI) ISBN: 9783428426522 Year: Volume: 32 Pages: 347 DOI: 10.3790/978-3-428-42652-2 Language: Deutsch
Publisher: Duncker & Humblot
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-05 16:21:56
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Ein Beitrag zur modellgestützten Analyse umweltpolitischer Instrumente in den Bereichen Luftreinhaltung und Klimawandel

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ISBN: 9783866447974 Year: Pages: 298 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000025526 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Industrielle Produktions- und Verbrennungsprozesse stellen nach wie vor wesentliche Emissionsquellen für Luftschadstoffe und Treibhausgase dar. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird daher ein Ansatz zur modellgestützten Analyse umweltpolitischer Instrumente hinsichtlich ihrer Auswirkungen auf sozio-ökonomische und ökologische Kenngrößen im Bereich der industriellen Produktion entwickelt und angewandt. Dazu wird ein dynamisches Input-Output-Modell mit einem akteursbasierten Ansatz gekoppelt.

Agricultural Input Subsidies: The Recent Malawi Experience

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ISBN: 9780199683529 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199683529.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: OAPEN-UK
Subject: Economics --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2013-10-11 21:10:22
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Agricultural input subsidies were a major feature of development policies in rural economies until the 1980s. Continuing rural poverty with low productivity and fertilizer use in smallholder staple crops has led to their resurgence in Africa. These subsidies are, however, controversial with claims of both large food security benefits and unsustainable, inefficient resource use. This book reviews current theory and evidence on the strengths and weaknesses of these programmes and the effects of programme context, design, and implementation. Theoretical arguments for agricultural subsidies are based on input promotion where farmers’ private costs (benefits) are higher (lower) than wider economic costs (benefits). These arguments, and concerns about inefficiency and diversion, are reviewed and extended to consider input affordability constraints and ‘smart’ rationing and targeting. Recent programmes in Africa have a variety of generally producer-focused objectives, with varied implementation and programme outcomes. Most pay little attention to consumer interests and potential contributions to wider growth. A detailed examination of Malawi’s controversial agricultural input subsidy programme follows. Drawing on a wide range of information sources, the political and agro-economic contexts of the programme are examined, with evidence on its implementation and impacts from 2005 to 2011. Positive impacts are recorded on beneficiaries’ production, incomes, food consumption, school enrolment, child health, and reduced need for earnings from undertaking casual labour for others. There is evidence of indirect economy-wide impacts, but this is not as strong as might be expected. Targeting and graduation are identified as critically important issues requiring continuing attention.

Wassily Leontief et la science économique : Suivi de « Les mathématiques dans la science économique », de Wassily Leontief

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ISBN: 9791036200908 DOI: 10.4000/books.enseditions.11329 Language: French
Publisher: ENS Éditions
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-09 12:19:29
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Des travaux de Wassily Leontief, on retient surtout ses tableaux entrées-sorties (TES), les célèbres TES de la comptabilité nationale, en oubliant l’ambition scientifique au service de laquelle ils avaient été conçus. Développé à Harvard dans les années 1930, le TES est un élément dans un dispositif scientifique visant à faire de l’économie une science empirique. Il est une matrice comptable associée à un modèle mathématique de l’équilibre économique général. Ce dispositif est conçu comme une alternative à l’économétrie que Leontief considère mal équipée pour résoudre le problème de l’association de la théorie à la mesure statistique. C’est qu’en économie, selon l’expression d’Alain Desrosières, le mariage entre la théorie et les statistiques est tardif et que le branchement ne va pas de soi. Cet essai présente d’abord la méthodologie économique de Leontief et montre comment elle s’insère dans les grands débats épistémologiques de la discipline jusqu’à aujourd’hui. L’ouvrage propose ensuite une réédition de l’article de Leontief « Les mathématiques et la science économique » (1954).

Critical Earthquake Response of Elastic-Plastic Structures and Rigid Blocks under Near-Fault Ground Motions: Closed-Form Approach via Double Impulse

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Book Series: Frontiers Theme Book ISBN: 9782889198702 Year: Pages: 64 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-870-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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This eBook is the second in a series of books on the critical earthquake response of elastic-plastic structures or rigid blocks under near-fault ground motions, and includes four original research papers which were published in the specialty section Earthquake Engineering in ‘Frontiers in Built Environment’. Several extensions of the first book1 are included here. The first article is on the soil-structure interaction problem. The reduction of an original soil-structure interaction model into a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) model enables the application of the original theory for an SDOF model to such complicated soil-structure interaction model. The second article is concerned with the extension of the original theory for an SDOF model to a 2DOF model. Since the simple application of the original theory for an SDOF model to a multi-degree-of-freedom model is difficult due to out-of-phase phenomenon of multiple masses, a convex model theory is introduced and an upper bound of elastic-plastic response is derived. The third article is related to the stability problem of structures (collapse problems of structures) in which the P-delta effect is included. It is shown that the original theory for an SDOF model with elastic-perfectly plastic restoring-force characteristic can be applied to a model with negative second slope. The fourth article is an application of the energy balance approach to an overturning limit problem of rigid blocks. A closed-form expression of the overturning limit of rigid blocks is derived for the first time after the Housner’s pioneering work in 1963. The approach presented in this book, together with the first book, is an epoch-making accomplishment to open the door for simpler and deeper understanding of structural reliability of built environments in the elastic-plastic and nonlinear range.

Critical Earthquake Response of Elastic-Plastic Structures Under Near-Fault Ground Motions: Closed-Form Approach via Impulse Input

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ISBN: 9782889197422 Year: Pages: 55 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-742-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-30 10:14:31
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The specialty section Earthquake Engineering is one branch of Frontiers in Built Environment and welcomes critical and in-depth submissions on earthquake ground motions and their effects on buildings and infrastructures. Manuscripts should yield new insights and ultimately contribute to a safer and more reliable design of building structures and infrastructures. The scope includes the characterization of earthquake ground motions (e.g. near-fault, far-fault, short-period, long-period), their underlying properties, their intrinsic relationship with structural responses, and the true behaviors of building structures and infrastructures under risky and uncertain ground motions. More specific topics include recorded ground motions, generated ground motions, response spectra, stochastic modeling of ground motion, critical excitation, geotechnical aspects, soil mechanics, soil liquefaction, soil-structure interactions, pile foundations, earthquake input energy, structural control, passive control, active control, base-isolation, steel structures, reinforced concrete structures, wood structures, building retrofit, structural optimization, uncertainty analysis, robustness analysis, and redundancy analysis. This eBook includes four original research papers, in addition to the Specialty Grand Challenge article, on the critical earthquake response of elastic-plastic structures under near-fault or long-duration ground motions which were published in the specialty section Earthquake Engineering. In the early stage of dynamic nonlinear response analysis of structures around 1960s, a simple hysteretic structural model and a simple sinusoidal earthquake ground motion input were dealt with together with random inputs. The steady-state response was tackled by an equivalent linearization method developed by Caughey, Iwan and others. In fact, the resonance plays a key role in the earthquake-resistant design and it has a strong effect even in case of near-fault ground motions. In order to draw the steady-state response curve and investigate the resonant property, two kinds of repetition have to be introduced. One is a cycle, for one forced input frequency, of the initial guess of the steady-state response amplitude, the construction of the equivalent linear model, the analysis of the steady-state response amplitude using the equivalent linear model and the update of the equivalent linear model based on the computed steady-state response amplitude. The other is the sweeping over a range of forced input frequencies. This process is quite tedious. Four original research papers included in this eBook propose a new approach to overcome this difficulty. Kojima and Takewaki demonstrated that the elastic-plastic response as continuation of free-vibrations under impulse input can be derived in a closed form by a sophisticated energy approach without solving directly the equations of motion as differential equations. While, as pointed out above, the approach based on the equivalent linearization method requires the repetition of application of the linearized equations, the method by Kojima and Takewaki does not need any repetition. The double impulse, triple impulse and multiple impulses enable us to describe directly the critical timing of impulses (resonant frequency) which is not easy for the sinusoidal and other inputs without a repetitive procedure. It is important to note that, while most of the previous methods employ the equivalent linearization of the structural model with the input unchanged, the method treated in this eBook transforms the input into a series of impulses with the structural model unchanged. This characteristic guarantees high accuracy and reliability even in the large plastic deformation range. The approach presented in this eBook is an epoch-making accomplishment to open the door for simpler and deeper understanding of structural reliability of built environments in the elastic-plastic range.

Produktions- und Beschaeftigungseffekte neuer Technologien

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Book Series: Hohenheimer volkswirtschaftliche Schriften ISBN: 9783631596029 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.3726/b13911 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:25
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Die Biotechnologie wird häufig als eine sehr bedeutende Technologie des 21. Jahrhunderts angesehen. Allerdings sind die empirischen Erkenntnisse über ihre wirtschaftlichen Effekte bislang gering. Daran setzt diese Arbeit an. Auf der Basis von theoretischen Wirkungszusammenhängen untersucht der Autor mögliche zukünftige Produktions- und Beschäftigungseffekte der Biotechnologie. Dabei werden in verschiedenen Szenarien für das Jahr 2020 technologische Entwicklungen für verschiedene Anwendungsfelder projiziert und mit einem Input-Output-Modell gekoppelt. Die Ergebnisse ermöglichen Aussagen über die Nettoveränderung der Produktion und Beschäftigung sowie Veränderungen im sektoralen Strukturwandel durch die Diffusion der Biotechnologie.

Regionaloekonomische Effekte von Flughaefen

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Book Series: Sozialoekonomische Schriften ISBN: 9783631574492 Year: Pages: 136 DOI: 10.3726/b13658 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Ecology --- Economics --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:38
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Im Zuge der wirtschaftlichen Globalisierung hat sich die Nachfrage nach Leistungen des Luftverkehrs in den vergangenen Jahren hochdynamisch entwickelt. Es ist zu erwarten, daß sich dieser Trend auch weiter fortsetzt. Daraus resultiert die gesellschaftlich kontrovers diskutierte Forderung nach einer Erhöhung des Angebots an Luftverkehrsleistungen. Es stellt sich die Frage, welche ökonomischen Effekte ausgehend von Flughäfen für die Gesamt- und Regionalwirtschaft entstehen und wie diese gemessen werden können. Es wird ein umfassender ökonomischer Bewertungsansatz diskutiert. Dieser beinhaltet unterschiedliche volkswirtschaftliche Nutzen- sowie Kostenkategorien, wie z.B. Beschäftigungseffekte und Lärmbelastung. In einem empirischen Teil werden ökonomische Wirkungen auf die Region für den Flughafen München untersucht.

IMPROVE - Innovative Modelling Approaches for Production Systems to Raise Validatable Efficiency

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Book Series: Technologien für die intelligente Automation ISBN: 9783662578056 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-57805-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-29 11:21:06
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This open access work presents selected results from the European research and innovation project IMPROVE which yielded novel data-based solutions to enhance machine reliability and efficiency in the fields of simulation and optimization, condition monitoring, alarm management, and quality prediction.

Using Noise to Characterize Vision

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197538 Year: Pages: 127 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-753-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Noise has been widely used to investigate the processing properties of various visual functions (e.g. detection, discrimination, attention, perceptual learning, averaging, crowding, face recognition), in various populations (e.g. older adults, amblyopes, migrainers, dyslexic children), using noise along various dimensions (e.g. pixel noise, orientation jitter, contrast jitter). The reason to use external noise is generally not to characterize visual processing in external noise per se, but rather to reveal how vision works in ordinary conditions when performance is limited by our intrinsic noise rather than externally added noise. For instance, reverse correlation aims at identifying the relevant information to perform a given task in noiseless conditions and measuring contrast thresholds in various noise levels can be used to understand the impact of intrinsic noise that limits sensitivity to noiseless stimuli. Why use noise? Since Fechner named it, psychophysics has always emphasized the systematic investigation of conditions that break vision. External noise raises threshold hugely and selectively. In hearing, Fletcher used noise in his famous critical-band experiments to reveal frequency-selective channels in hearing. Critical bands have been found in vision too. More generally, the big reliable effects of noise give important clues to how the system works. And simple models have been proposed to account for the effects of visual noise. As noise has been more widely used, questions have been raised about the simplifying assumptions that link the processing properties in noiseless conditions to measurements in external noise. For instance, it is usually assumed that the processing strategy (or mechanism) used to perform a task and its processing properties (e.g. filter tuning) are unaffected by the addition of external noise. Some have suggested that the processing properties could change with the addition of external noise (e.g. change in filter tuning or more lateral masking in noise), which would need to be considered before drawing conclusions about the processing properties in noiseless condition. Others have suggested that different processing properties (or mechanisms) could be solicited in low and high noise conditions, complicating the characterization of processing properties in noiseless condition based on processing properties identified in noise conditions. The current Research Topic probes further into what the effects of visual noise tell us about vision in ordinary conditions. Our Editorial gives an overview of the articles in this special issue.

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