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A COPD Primer

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ISBN: 9783110468007 9783110468113 Year: Pages: 412 DOI: 10.1515/9783110468007 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-07 14:19:43
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In 2012 we received a grant from the Veterans Health Administration Office of Specialty Care entitled, “Patient-Centered Model for the Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.” The grant’s goals were to enhance the recognition and diagnosis of COPD and implement a Patient-Centered Model for the Management of COPD. As the work on that proposal progressed, we realized that providers did not have an up-to-date, comprehensive, easily read, “how to” manual for the management of COPD despite all the advances in COPD care that have occurred over the past 5 years. Consensus documents such as the VA-DOD Guidelines were abbreviated summaries that were rarely used. From those discussions, the concept for this volume, a COPD Primer, developed. The goal was to develop a practical book that concisely presented COPD to providers with sufficient background and explanation of the physiologic and scientific rationale for various management strategies without becoming an esoteric academic work. We hope that this COPD Primer has achieved that goal and will be a useful, practical text for practitioners and medical trainees alike.The COPD Primer begins with an examination of what COPD is; it is really a syndrome, a constellation of historical features and clinical, physiologic, and radiographic findings. However, those elements come together in many different ways to create multiple different COPD phenotypes that are only now being recognized and used to define specific management strategies. COPD research has progressed beyond the simple classification of “blue bloaters” and “pink puffers.” Next, the epidemiology and economic consequences of COPD are reviewed. Bill Eschenbacher presents an approach to the patient with respiratory symptoms with detailed discussions of pulmonary function testing and how airflow limitation/obstruction is identified by spirometry and the use of lung imaging to identify individuals with COPD. Michael Borchers and Gregory Motz summarize current evidence implicating genetics, proteolytic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, occupational and environmental exposures, and innate and adaptive immune function in the pathogenesis of COPD and the implication of these findings to future treatments. The single most important intervention in the prevention and treatment of COPD is smoking cessation. Shari Altum, Katherine Butler, and Rachel Juran present a practical approach to smoking cessation utilizing motivational interviewing in combination with pharmacologic interventions. Then, they expand upon these concepts to provide practitioners with convenient, realistic suggestions to encourage patient self-management in all aspects of COPD care and overall health. Ahsan Zafar reviews the natural history, recently described COPD phenotypes, and gender differences that clearly illustrate the broad spectrum of disease that comprises the term, COPD. The cover illustration highlights Dr. Zafar’s creative and artistic talents. The extensive nonpulmonary aspects of COPD are reviewed by Ralph Panos in an examination of COPD’s multi-organ manifestations. Next, the effect of COPD on sleep and the overlap syndrome, the concurrence of COPD and obstructive sleep apnea, and its consequences are presented. Jean Elwing examines the effect of COPD on the pulmonary vasculature with a detailed discussion of the evaluation and management of pulmonary hypertension associated with COPD. COPD’s effects on psychosocial functioning and familial interactions are presented by Mary Panos and Ralph Panos.The focus of the Primer then shifts from manifestations to treatment with a discussion of stable COPD management. With the current plethora of devices for delivering respiratory medications, it is difficult for both patients and providers to sustain knowledge of their proper use. Aaron Mulhall presents a practical guide to correct inhaler use that reviews all the current devices. Folarin Sogbetun then reviews the management of outpatient COPD exacerbations and Nishant Gupta discusses the approach to the patient hospitalized with COPD. Because patients with COPD often see multiple subspecialty physicians in addition to their primary care providers, interdisciplinary communication and coordination of care is essential for their management; Sara Krzywkowski-Mohn reviews the interactions between primary and specialty care for the patient with COPD with suggestions for improved communication and care coordination. Finally, advance care planning including palliative care and hospice is reviewed with a discussion of how end stage COPD affects not only the patient but also their family and social network.This COPD Primer incorporates the knowledge that we have learned over the past several years during the development and implementation of a patient-centered model for the management of COPD. It was written with the explicit goal of assisting both the practicing provider and medical trainee in the care of patients with COPD.

Plasma Medicine - Concepts and Clinical Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781789231120 9781789231137 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68652 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Plasma can be defined as the extracellular matrix of blood cells. Plasma components, their role in human health risk evaluation, and their functional and clinical analyses are covered in this book. Furthermore, physical plasma-ionized gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter. This homonym has begun to emerge because it can interact with living systems. The physical plasma biomedical applications are reviewed in drug delivery and wound healing medical applications. This approach revolutionizes the therapeutic approaches in medicine and may open up new concepts and clinical applications. The book is an essential source for researchers in the field and provides a platform for different professions.

HIV Infection in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment and Some of Its Associated Complications

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ISBN: 9789533077017 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.5772/1752 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a complex illness affecting the immune system. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an advanced form of HIV infection in which the patient has developed opportunistic infections or certain types of cancer and/or the CD4+ T cell count has dropped below 200/μL. More than 40 million persons around the world are infected with HIV, with approximately 14,000 new infections every day. The disease causes 3 million deaths worldwide each year, 95% of them in developing countries. Optimal management of human immunodeficiency virus requires strict adherence to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) regimens, but the complexity of these regimens (e.g., pill burden, food requirements, drug interactions, and severe adverse effects) limits effective treatment. However, more patients with HIV are surviving longer today because of these drugs. This allows further study of commonly associated adverse effects. These may affect all body systems and range from serious toxicities to uncomfortable but manageable events. This book reviews some of HAART-related metabolic and neurological complications.

Understanding Tuberculosis - Global Experiences and Innovative Approaches to the Diagnosis

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ISBN: 9789533079387 Year: Pages: 564 DOI: 10.5772/1483 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a disease that is transmitted through aerosol. This is the reason why it is estimated that a third of humankind is already infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The vast majority of the infected do not know about their status. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a silent pathogen, causing no symptomatology at all during the infection. In addition, infected people cannot cause further infections. Unfortunately, an estimated 10 per cent of the infected population has the probability to develop the disease, making it very difficult to eradicate. Once in this stage, the bacilli can be transmitted to other persons and the development of clinical symptoms is very progressive. Therefore the diagnosis, especially the discrimination between infection and disease, is a real challenge. In this book, we present the experience of worldwide specialists on the diagnosis, along with its lights and shadows.

Understanding Tuberculosis - New Approaches to Fighting Against Drug Resistance

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ISBN: 9789533079486 Year: Pages: 388 DOI: 10.5772/2477 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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In 1957, a Streptomyces strain, the ME/83 (S.mediterranei), was isolated in the Lepetit Research Laboratories from a soil sample collected at a pine arboretum near Saint Raphael, France. This drug was the base for the chemotherapy with Streptomicine. The euphoria generated by the success of this regimen lead to the idea that TB eradication would be possible by the year 2000. Thus, any further drug development against TB was stopped. Unfortunately, the lack of an accurate administration of these drugs originated the irruption of the drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Once the global emergency was declared in 1993, seeking out new drugs became urgent. In this book, diverse authors focus on the development and the activity of the new drug families.

Understanding Tuberculosis - Deciphering the Secret Life of the Bacilli

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ISBN: 9789533079462 Year: Pages: 346 DOI: 10.5772/2479 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as recent investigations demonstrate, has a complex signaling expression, which allows its close interaction with the environment and one of its most renowned properties: the ability to persist for long periods of time under a non-replicative status. Although this skill is well characterized in other bacteria, the intrinsically very slow growth rate of Mycobium tuberculosis, together with a very thick and complex cell wall, makes this pathogen specially adapted to the stress that could be generated by the host against them. In this book, different aspects of these properties are displayed by specialists in the field.

Understanding Tuberculosis - Analyzing the Origin of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Pathogenicity

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ISBN: 9789533079424 Year: Pages: 572 DOI: 10.5772/2478 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an attempt to understand the extent to which the bacilli has adapted itself to the host and to its final target. On the other hand, there is a section in which other specialists discuss how to manipulate this immune response to obtain innovative prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to truncate the intimal co-evolution between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the Homo sapiens.

Current Topics in Tropical Medicine

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ISBN: 9789535102748 Year: Pages: 578 DOI: 10.5772/1335 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Tropical Medicine has emerged and remained as an important discipline for the study of diseases endemic in the tropic, particularly those of infectious etiology. Emergence and reemergence of many tropical pathologies have recently aroused the interest of many fields of the study of tropical medicine, even including new infectious agents. Then evidence-based information in the field and regular updates are necessary. Current Topics in Tropical Medicine presents an updated information on multiple diseases and conditions of interest in the field. It Includes pathologies caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites, protozoans and helminths, as well as tropical non-infectious conditions. Many of them are considering not only epidemiological aspects, but also diagnostic, therapeutical, preventive, social, genetic, bioinformatic and molecular ones. With participation of authors from various countries, many from proper endemic areas, this book has a wide geographical perspective. Finally, all of these characteristics, make an excellent update on many aspects of tropical medicine in the world.

Salmonella - Distribution, Adaptation, Control Measures and Molecular Technologies

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535106616 9789535142898 Year: Pages: 518 DOI: 10.5772/2470 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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The discovery of Salmonella in swine in 1885 marked the beginning of intense efforts to control salmonellae that have continued for the past 127 years. The majority of foodborne outbreaks are caused by only a few of the 2500+ known serovars. While progress has been made on many fronts, salmonellosis has yet to be eliminated in either developed or in developing nations. This work represents the collective contributions of authors from all around the world. Chapters in this book address a wide array of topics related to understanding and controlling this pathogen, including: Salmonella as studied in the environment, air and in food products; virulence and pathogenicity; control by bacteriophages and other antimicrobials; bacterial adaptation; etc.

Leishmaniasis - Trends in Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Treatment

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ISBN: 9789535112327 9789535142362 Year: Pages: 536 DOI: 10.5772/57067 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Of all the parasitic diseases, leishmaniasis is one of the most diverse, with a variety of manifestations, from relatively minor cutaneous lesions to deadly visceral infections. It is also widespread, causing human disease in the Americas, Asia, Europe and Africa. The environments in which this disease occurs range from desert to tropical jungle to urban habitats. Not surprisingly, the literature on this disease is written in a variety of languages including Portuguese, Arabic, English and French among others. This book provides a synopsis in English of much of the recent research on leishmaniasis, with a focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of the disease as described by researchers around the world, but with a focus on the research from Brazil and the Middle East.

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