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Molecular Mechanisms and Physiological Significance of Organelle Interactions and Cooperation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451043 Year: Pages: 151 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-104-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Abstract

Eukaryotic cells contain distinct membrane-bound organelles, which compartmentalise cellular proteins to fulfil a variety of vital functions. Many organelles have long been regarded as isolated and static entities (e.g., peroxisomes, mitochondria, lipid droplets), but it is now evident that they display dynamic changes, interact with each other, share certain proteins and show metabolic cooperation and cross-talk. Despite great advances in the identification and characterisation of essential components and molecular mechanisms associated with the biogenesis and function of organelles, information on how organelles interact and are incorporated into metabolic pathways and signaling networks is just beginning to emerge. Organelle cooperation requires sophisticated targeting systems which regulate the proper distribution of shared proteins to more than one organelle. Organelle motility and membrane remodeling support organelle interaction and contact. This contact can be mediated by membrane proteins residing on different organelles which can serve as molecular tethers to physically link different organelles together. They can also contribute to the exchange of metabolites and ions, or act in the assembly of signaling platforms. In this regard organelle communication events have been associated with important cellular functions such as apoptosis, antiviral defense, organelle division/biogenesis, ROS metabolism and signaling, and various metabolic pathways such as breakdown of fatty acids or cholesterol biosynthesis. In this research topic we will focus on recent novel findings on the underlying molecular mechanisms and physiological significance of organelle interaction and cooperation with a particular focus on mitochondria, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes and lipid droplets and their impact on the regulation of cellular homeostasis. Our understanding of how organelles physically interact and use cellular signaling systems to coordinate functional networks between each other is still in its infancy. Nevertheless recent discoveries of defined membrane structures such as the mitochondria-ER associated membranes (MAM) are revealing how membrane domains enriched in specific proteins transmit signals across organelle boundaries, allowing one organelle to influence the function of another. In addition to its role as a mediator between mitochondria and the ER, contacts between the MAM and peroxisomes contribute to antiviral signaling, and specialised regions of the ER are supposed to initiate peroxisome biogenesis, whereas intimate contacts between peroxisomes, lipid droplets and the ER mediate lipid metabolism. In line with these observations it is tempting to speculate that further physical contact sites between other organelles exist. Alternatively, novel regulated vesicle trafficking pathways between organelles (e.g., mitochondria to peroxisomes or lysosomes) have been discovered implying another mode of organelle communication. Identifying the key molecular players of such specialised membrane structures will be a prerequisite to understand how organelle communication is physically accomplished and will lead to the identification of new regulatory networks. In addition to the direct transmission of interorganellar information, cytosolic messenger systems (e.g., kinase/phosphatase systems or redox signaling) may contribute to the coordination of organelle functions. This research topic will integrate new findings from both modes of communication and will provide new perspectives for the functional significance of cross-talk among organelles. We would like to thank all the researchers who contributed their valuable work to this research topic. Furthermore, we are grateful to the reviewers and Associate Editors who contributed valuable comments and positive criticism to improve the contributions.

Roles and Functions of ROS and RNS in Cellular Physiology and Pathology

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ISBN: 9783039287826 / 9783039287833 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-783-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pathology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Abstract

Our common knowledge on oxidative stress has evolved substantially over the years and has been mostly focused on the fundamental chemical reactions and the most relevant chemical species involved in the human pathophysiology of oxidative stress-associated diseases. Thus, reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) were identified as the key players initiating, mediating, and regulating the cellular and biochemical complexity of oxidative stress either as physiological (acting pro-hormetic) or as pathogenic (causing destructive vicious circle) process. The papers published in this particular Special Issue of the Cells demonstrate the impressive pathophysiological relevance of ROS and RNS in a range of contexts, including the relevance of second messengers of free radicals like 4-hydroxynonenal, allowing us to assume that even more detailed mechanisms of their positive and negative effects lie in wait, and should assist in better monitoring of the major modern diseases and the development of advanced integrative biomedicine treatments.

Keywords

human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells --- TRPM2 channel --- ROS --- neuronal cell death --- histamine --- calcium --- endothelial cells --- NADPH-oxidase --- VAS2870 --- von Willebrand factor --- aorta --- relaxation --- reactive oxygen species (ROS) --- oxidative stress --- lipid peroxidation --- acrolein --- 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) --- oxidative burst --- granulocytes --- cancer cells --- growth control --- cancer regression --- hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials --- osteoblast growth --- redox balance --- vitamins --- lipid peroxidation --- 4-hydroxynonenal --- oxidative stress --- oxidative stress --- nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 --- heme-oxygenase-1 --- macrophages --- plaque vulnerability --- optical coherence tomography --- reactive oxygen species --- free radicals --- DNA damage --- cyclopurines --- DNA and RNA polymerases --- nucleotide excision repair --- LC-MS/MS --- xeroderma pigmentosum --- cancer --- intermittent hypoxia --- mitochondria --- Ca2+, ROS --- antioxidant --- free radicals --- antimicrobial --- toll-like receptors --- cannabidiol --- UV radiation --- keratinocytes --- antioxidants --- inflammation --- intracellular signaling --- Nrf2 --- NF?B --- glucose deprivation --- glutamine deprivation --- viability --- proliferation --- ROS --- NRF2-NQO1 axis --- IMR-90 --- NQO1 transcript variants --- rs1800566 --- TP53 mutation --- oxidative stress --- MFN2 --- mitochondria --- fusion/fission --- oxidative stress --- blood–brain barrier --- bEnd5 --- bEnd.3 --- glutathione --- viability --- free radicals --- redox balance --- cell signaling --- growth --- toxicity --- antioxidants --- oxidative homeostasis --- oxidative metabolism of the cells --- pathophysiology of oxidative stress

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