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Fe Deficiency, Dietary Bioavailability and Absorption

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ISBN: 9783038972303 9783038972310 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-231-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-12 11:51:12
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately one-third of worldwide infant deaths, and one half in developing countries, can be attributed to malnutrition. More specifically, iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and a major cause of infant mortality. Fe deficiency is particularly widespread in low-income countries because of a general lack of consumption of animal products (which can promote non-heme Fe absorption and contain highly bioavailable heme Fe) coupled with a high consumption of a monotonous diet of cereal grains and legumes. Such diets are low in bioavailable Fe due to the presence of phytic acid and certain polyphenols that are inhibitors of Fe bioavailability. Diets with chronically poor Fe bioavailability which result in high prevalence of Fe deficiency and anemia, increase the risk of all-cause child mortalities and also may lead to many pathophysiological consequences including stunted growth, low birth weight, delayed mental development and motor functioning, among others. Thus, a crucial step in alleviating Fe deficiency anemia is through understanding how specific dietary practices and components contribute to the Fe status in a particular region where Fe deficiency is prevalent. The aim of this Special Issue is to report on the recent advances and research developments related to the improvements of dietary Fe bioavailability and absorption in an effort to alleviate dietary Fe deficiency.]

The Importance of Iron in Pathophysiologic Conditions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195244 Year: Pages: 479 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-524-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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The iron element (Fe) is strictly required for the survival of most forms of life, including bacteria, plants and humans. Fine-tuned regulatory mechanisms for Fe absorption, mobilization and recycling operate to maintain Fe homeostasis, the disruption of which leads to Fe overload or Fe depletion. Whereas the deleterious effect of Fe deficiency relies on reduced oxygen transport and diminished activity of Fe-dependent enzymes, the cytotoxicity induced by Fe overload is due to the ability of this metal to act as a pro-oxidant and catalyze the formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals via the Fenton chemistry. This results in unfettered oxidative stress generation that, by inducing protein, lipid and DNA oxidation, leads to Fe-mediated programmed cell death and organ dysfunction. Major and systemic Fe overloads occurring in hemochromatosis and Fe-loading anemias have been extensively studied. However, localized tissue Fe overload was recently associated to a variety of pathologies, such as infection, inflammation, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. In keeping with the existence of cross-regulatory interactions between Fe homeostasis and the pathophysiology of these diseases, further investigations on the mechanisms that provide cellular and systemic adaptation to tissue Fe overload are instrumental for future therapeutic approaches. Thus, we encourage our colleagues to submit original research papers, reviews, perspectives, methods and technology reports to contribute their findings to a current state of the art on a comprehensive overview of the importance of iron metabolism in pathophysiologic conditions.

Modelling the plastic deformation of iron

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783866449688 Year: Volume: 15 Pages: XII, 146 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000032216 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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The 1/2<111> screw dislocations in bcc iron are studied by atomistic simulations. An analytical yield criterion captures correctly the non-Schmid plastic behavior. A model Peierls potential develops a link between the atomistic modeling at 0 K and the thermally activated dislocation motion. All predicted features agree well with experimental observations. This work establishes a consistent bottom-up model that provides an insight into the microscopic origins of the plastic behavior of bcc iron.

Magnetoelectric coupling at metal surfaces

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Book Series: Experimental Condensed Matter Physics / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Physikalisches Institut ISSN: 21919925 ISBN: 9783731500636 Year: Volume: 7 Pages: IV, 130 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000035715 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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Nowadays, the development of magnetic data storage devices technique faces fundamental limitations which lead to a slow-down of the increase of areal storage density. Therefore, magnetoelectric coupling which allows to change the magnetic state of matter by means of an electric field attracted significant interest. In this work, scanning tunneling microscopy was used to show for the first time that magnetic information can be written on the nanometer scale by the application of electric fields.

The Power of Systems

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ISBN: 9781501703188 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Cornell University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 100418
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-16 00:08:19
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The International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), an international think tank established jointly by the United States and Soviet Union in Austria in 1972, was intended to advance scientific collaboration. Until the late 1980s, the IIASA was one of the very few permanent sites where policy scientists from both sides of the Iron Curtain could work together to articulate and solve world problems, most notably global climate change. One of the best-kept secrets of the Cold War, this think tank was a rare zone of freedom, communication, and negotiation, where leading Soviet scientists could try out their innovative ideas, benefit from access to Western literature, and develop social networks, thus paving the way for some of the key science and policy breakthroughs of the twentieth century.

Biodegradable Metals

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ISBN: 9783038973867 9783038973874 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-387-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-06 10:15:09
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The interest in biocompatible and biodegradable metals, such as magnesium, is mainly related to their potential use as structural material for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications where a temporary medical device is required. However, in the case of magnesium, in vivo experiments have clearly shown that the corrosion degradation rate of magnesium and its alloys is too high and, hence, results in producing gas cavities that can promote the danger of gas embolism, tissue separation, and premature loss of mechanical integrity. The aim of this Special Issue on Biodegradable Metals is to explore and introduce innovative strategies to overcome the current limitations of magnesium.

Fibula, Fabula, Fact

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Book Series: Studia Fennica Historica ISBN: 9789522227645 9789522226037 9789522227645 9789522226228 Year: Pages: 519 DOI: 10.21435/sfh.18 Language: English
Publisher: Finnish Literature Society / SKS Grant: Helsinki University Library and SKS
Subject: Social Sciences --- Religion --- Archaeology --- History --- Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:41
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"The chapters of Fibula, Fabula, Fact – The Viking Age in Finland are intended to provide essential foundations for approaching the important topic of the Viking Age in Finland. These chapters are oriented to provide introductions to the sources, methods and perspectives of diverse disciplines in a way that is accessible to specialists from other fields, specialists from outside Finland, and also to non-specialist readers and students who may be more generally interested in the topic. Rather than detailed case studies, the contributors have sought to negotiate definitions of the Viking Age as a historical period in the cultural areas associated with modern-day Finland, and in areas associated with Finns, Karelians and other North Finnic linguistic-cultural groups more generally. Within the incredible diversity of data and disciplines represented here, the Viking Age tends to be distinguished by differentiating it from earlier and later periods, while the geographical space is quite fluidly defined for this era, which was long before the construction of modern nations with their fenced and guarded borders. Most significantly, the contributions lay emphasis on contextualizing the Viking Age within the complexities of defining cultural identities in the past through traces of cultural, linguistic or genetic features.&#xD;&#xD;The volume opens with a general introduction to the topic that is intended to provide a frame of reference for discussion, paralleled by a closing afterward. The following chapters are organized according to three thematic sections which reflect the three aspects of any discussion of the Viking Age in Finland: Time, Space, and People – because any discussion of the ‘Viking Age’ in ‘Finland’ is necessarily concerned with individuals, societies and cultures."&#xD;

Keywords

Vikings --- Viking Age --- Late Iron Age --- Finland --- Culture --- History

The Role of Iron in Bacterial Pathogenesis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456628 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-662-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The collection of articles published in this eBook represent different facets of the interactions between pathogens and their host concerning the battle for iron. Pathogens have developed different strategies to acquire iron from their host. These include the production of siderophores, heme acquisition and ferrous iron uptake.

China's Business Reforms

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Book Series: Routledge Contemporary China Series ISBN: 9780203537039 9780415345170 9780415648806 9781134283262 9781134283255 9781134283217 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203537039 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics --- Sociology --- History --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:29
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China's recent economic reforms have led to impressive growth, and an unprecedented enthusiasm for establishing foreign enterprises in China. Since 1993, China has been the second largest recipient of foreign direct investment in the world and is now considered to be the world's third biggest economy. Its greater economic integration with the rest of the world, especially since its accession to the World Trade Organisation (WTO), has further accelerated its market-oriented economic reforms. China is now opening its protected markets and beginning to submit to the rule of international law. This ongoing transition and increasing participation in the world economy has resulted in significant changes in human resource management and social welfare practices in China's enterprises. The book examines the key areas, all of which are linked, where China is grappling with institutional reforms as it opens up to the outside world: state-owned enterprise reform, capital markets and financial reform, human resources and labour market reform, social welfare reform, and China's accession to the WTO and the growth of the private sector.

Intracellular biomineralization in bacteria

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192724 Year: Pages: 135 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-272-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Oceanography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Bacteria can sequester metals and other ions intracellularly in various forms ranging from poorly ordered deposits to well- ordered mineral crystals. Magnetotactic bacteria provide one example of such intracellular deposits. They synthesize intracellular magnetic minerals of magnetite (Fe3O4) and/or greigite (Fe3S4) magnetosomes which are generally less than 150 nm and organized into one or multiple chain structures. The magnetosome chain(s) act like a compass needle to facilitate the navigation of magnetotactic bacteria by using the Earth's magnetic field. Due to their ubiquitous distribution in aquatic and sedimentary environments, magnetotactic bacteria play important roles in global iron cycling. Other intracellular mineral phases have been evidenced in bacteria such as As2S3, CaCO3, CdS, Se(0) or various metal phosphates which may play as well a significant role in the geochemical cycle of these elements. However, in contrast to magnetotactic bacteria, the biological and environmental function of these particles remains a matter of debate. In recent years, such intracellularly biomineralizaing bacteria have become an attractive model system for investigating the molecular mechanisms of organelle-like structure formation in prokaryotic cells. The geological significance of intracellular biomineralization is important; spectacular examples are fossil magnetosomes that may significantly contribute to the bulk magnetization of sediments and act as potential archives of paleoenvironmental changes. In addition, intracellular mineral deposits formed by bacteria have potentially versatile applications in biotechnological and biomedical fields. After more than four decades of research, the knowledge on intracellularly biomineralizing bacteria has greatly improved. The aim of this Research Topic is to highlight recent advances in our understanding of intracellular biomineralization by bacteria. Magnetotactic bacteria are a system of choice for that topic but other intracellularly biomineralizing bacteria may bring a unique perspective on that process. Research papers, reviews, perspectives, and opinion papers on (i) the diversity and ecology of intracellularly biomineralizing bacteria, (ii) the molecular mechanisms of intracellular biomineralization, (iii) the chemo- and magneto-taxis behaviors of magnetotactic bacteria, (iv) the involvement of intracellularly biomineralizing bacteria in local or global biogeochemical cycling, (v) the paleoenvironmental reconstructions and paleomagnetic signals based on fossil magnetosomes, (vi) and the applications of intracellular minerals in biomaterial and biotechnology were welcomed.

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