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LC-MS/MS Method for Mycotoxin Analysis

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ISBN: 9783038426066 9783038426073 Year: Pages: VIII, 186 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-22 11:28:33
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Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by some species of filamentous fungi belonging to Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Claviceps and Alternaria genera. The biochemical significance of mycotoxins in fungal metabolism has not always been fully clarified; however, the main concern for mycotoxins is driven by the deleterious effects they can exert on human and animal health. Structurally, the mycotoxins currently known belong to heterogeneous chemical classes, therefore the toxic effects they can induce are highly diverse (e.g., cancerogenic and immunosuppressive effects). The main route of human exposure to mycotoxins is by intake of contaminated food, either directly from contaminated agricultural products, or indirectly from residues and metabolites present in foods of animal origin. Immunochemical methods are generally used for the fast screening of mycotoxin presence; however, for confirmation purposes, analytical methods based on high-performance liquid chromatography (LC) are preferred, especially when coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), which allows the determination of multiclass mycotoxins in a single analysis. Moreover, the technical innovations available in LC-MS/MS instrumentation are prompting its application to the monitoring of contaminants in food and feed. The aim of this paper collection, constituted by ten research articles and one review, is to provide the reader with an overview on the novelties and capabilities in LC-MS/MS-based multi-mycotoxin methods, also including the investigation of emerging and modified mycotoxins.

Drug Metabolism, Pharmacokinetics and Bioanalysis

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ISBN: 9783038979166 / 9783038979173 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-917-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Drug metabolism/pharmacokinetics and drug interaction studies have been extensively carried out in order to secure the druggability and safety of new chemical entities throughout the development of new drugs. Recently, drug metabolism and transport by phase II drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters, respectively, as well as phase I drug metabolizing enzymes, have been studied. A combination of biochemical advances in the function and regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes and automated analytical technologies are revolutionizing drug metabolism research. There are also potential drug–drug interactions with co-administered drugs due to inhibition and/or induction of drug metabolic enzymes and drug transporters. In addition, drug interaction studies have been actively performed to develop substrate cocktails that do not interfere with each other and a simultaneous analytical method of substrate drugs and their metabolites using a tandem mass spectrometer. This Special Issue has the aim of highlighting current progress in drug metabolism/pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, and bioanalysis.

Keywords

procainamide --- N-acetylprocainamide --- ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography --- rat --- plasma --- pharmacokinetics --- adalimumab --- immunoprecipitation --- liquid chromatography-quadrupole TOF MS --- bioanalysis --- GB3 --- Fabry disease --- LC-QTOF-MS/MS --- B6 --- 129-Glatm1Kul/J --- cytochrome P450 --- drug interaction --- liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry --- organic anion transporting polypeptide --- pharmacokinetics --- Korean red ginseng extract --- metformin --- diabetes --- drug interaction --- pharmacokinetics --- efficacy --- ethyl glucuronide --- hair --- HPLC-MS/MS --- AUDIT score --- alcohol addiction --- eurycomanone --- Eurycoma longifolia --- bioavailability --- pharmacokinetic --- anthraquinone --- glycoside --- aglycone --- LC-MS/MS --- plasma --- protein precipitation --- loxoprofen --- CYP --- UGT --- human liver microsomes --- LC-HR/MS --- mematine --- drug interaction --- liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry --- pharmacokinetics --- biopharmaceuticals --- drying technology --- protein stability --- bioavailability --- pharmacokinetics --- DA-9805 --- saikosaponin a --- paeonol --- imperatorin --- pharmacokinetics --- brain distribution --- Osthenol --- CYP --- UGT --- human liver microsomes --- glucuronidation --- Stauntonia hexaphylla leaf extract --- YRA-1909 --- pharmacokinetics --- chlorogenic acid --- neochlorogenic acid --- cryptochlorogenic acid --- caffeic acid --- caffeic acid O-glucuronides --- LC-MS/MS --- aceclofenac --- diclofenac --- esomeprazole --- pharmacokinetics --- gastric ulcer --- acetyl tributyl citrate --- pharmaceutical excipient --- pharmacokinetics --- metabolic stability --- plasma

Emerging Marine Biotoxins

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ISBN: 9783039215133 / 9783039213498 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-349-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The emergence of marine and freshwater toxins in geographical areas where they have never been reported before is a concern due to the considerable impact on (sea)food contamination, and consequently, on public health. Several groups of marine biotoxins, in particular tetrodotoxins, ciguatoxins, and palytoxins, are included among the relevant marine biotoxins that have recently emerged in several coastal areas. A similar situation has been observed in freshwater, where cyanobacterial toxins, such as microcystins, could end up in unexpected areas such as the estuaries where shellfish are cultivated. Climate change and the increased availability of nutrients have been considered as the key factors in the expansion of all of these toxins into new areas; however, this could also be due to more intense biological invasions, more sensitive analytical methods, or perhaps even an increased scientific interest in these natural contaminations. The incidences of human intoxications due to the consumption of seafood contaminated with these toxins have made their study an important task to accomplish in order to protect human health. This Special Issue has a focus on a wide variety of emerging biotoxin classes and techniques to identify and quantify them.

Solid Phase Extraction: State of the Art and Future Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783039211586 / 9783039211593 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-159-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book is a collection of 13 innovative papers describing the state of the art and the future perspectives in solid-phase extraction covering several analytical fields prior to the use of gas or liquid chromatographic analysis. New sorptive materials are presented including carbon nanohorn suprastructures on paper support, melamine sponge functionalized with urea–formaldehyde co-oligomers, chiral metal–organic frameworks, UiO-66-based metal–organic frameworks, and fabric phase sorptive media for various applications. Solid-phase extraction can be applied in several formats aside from the conventional cartridges or mini-column approach, e.g., online solid-phase extraction, dispersive solid-phase microextraction, and in-syringe micro-solid-phase extraction can be very helpful for analyte pre-concentration and sample clean-up. Polycyclic musks in aqueous samples, 8-Nitroguanine in DNA by chemical derivatization antibacterial diterpenes from the roots of salvia prattii, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aater samples by bamboo charcoal-based SPE, parabens in environmental water samples, benzotriazoles as environmental pollutants, organochlorine pesticide residues in various fruit juices and water samples and synthetic peptide purification are among the applications cited in this collection. All these outstanding contributions highlight the necessity of this analytical step, present the advantages and disadvantages of each method and focus on the green analytical chemistry guidelines that have to be fulfilled in current analytical practices.

Biological Potential and Medical Use of Secondary Metabolites

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ISBN: 9783039211876 / 9783039211883 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-188-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Many macro and micro species, from terrestrial and aquatic environments, produce structurally unique compounds and, in many countries, still are the primary sources of medicines. In fact, secondary metabolites are an important source of chemotherapeutic agents but are also lead compounds for synthetic modification and the optimization of biological activity. Therefore, the exploitation of secondary metabolites, or their inspired synthetic compounds, offers excellent opportunities for the pharmaceutical industry. This Medicines Special Issue focuses on the great potential of secondary metabolites for therapeutic application. The Special Issue contains 16 articles reporting relevant experimental results, and an overview of bioactive secondary metabolites, their biological effects, and new methodologies that improve and accelerate the process of obtained lead compounds with regard to new drug development. We would like to thank all 83 authors, from all over the world, for their valuable contributions to this Special Issue.

Keywords

Juniperus --- secondary metabolites --- diterpenes --- flavonoids --- lignans --- cytotoxic --- antitumor --- antibacterial --- amentoflavone --- deoxypodophyllotoxin --- frankincense --- Boswellia --- cembranoids --- cneorubenoids --- boswellic acids --- molecular docking --- Scabiosa --- flavonoids --- iridoids --- pentacyclic triterpenoids --- antioxidant --- anti-inflammatory --- antibacterial --- anticancer --- Cordyceps militaris --- xanthine oxidase --- antioxidant --- antibacterial --- cordycepin --- GC-MS --- Artemisia species --- Artemisia vachanica --- artemisinin --- HPLC-PAD --- Tajikistan --- Malus x domestica --- Tuscany --- ancient varieties --- nutraceutics --- antioxidants --- polyphenols --- sugars --- pectin --- defensins --- secondary metabolites --- plant defense --- antimicrobial and anticancer activity --- medicine --- innate immunity --- cannabis --- cannabinoids --- therapeutics --- toxicology --- analytical determination --- legalization --- natural products --- biosynthetic gene clusters --- secondary metabolites --- antiSMASH --- Mitragyna speciosa --- kratom --- secondary metabolites --- therapeutic uses --- toxicology --- analysis --- Maytenus chiapensis --- Celastraceae --- quinonemethide triterpenoids --- pristimerin --- tingenone --- HPLC-PDA --- Ocimum sanctum --- Lamiaceae --- (-)-rabdosiin --- cytotoxic activity --- triterpenoids --- phenolic derivatives --- nanoemulsion --- essential oils --- vector control --- infectious diseases --- TCM --- phytochemistry --- LC-MS/MS --- antioxidant activity --- ABTS --- DPPH --- FRAP --- ascorbic acid --- EGCG --- total phenolics --- antimicrobial activity --- sargaquinoic acid --- sarganaphthoquinoic acid --- antiplasmodial --- malaria --- PPAR-? --- sargahydroquinoic acid --- sarganaphthoquinoic acid --- sargachromenoic acid --- inflammation --- bowel diseases --- secondary metabolites --- biological activities --- medicinal applications --- plants --- seaweeds

Transcriptional Regulation: Molecules, Involved Mechanisms and Misregulation

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ISBN: 9783039212651 / 9783039212668 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-266-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Transcriptional regulation is a critical biological process involved in the response of a cell, a tissue or an organism to a variety of intra- and extra-cellular signals. Besides, it controls the establishment and maintenance of cell identity throughout developmental and differentiation programs. This highly complex and dynamic process is orchestrated by a huge number of molecules and protein networks and occurs through multiple temporal and functional steps. Of note, many human disorders are characterized by misregulation of global transcription since most of the signaling pathways ultimately target components of transcription machinery. This book includes a selection of papers that illustrate recent advances in our understanding of transcriptional regulation and focuses on many important topics, from cis-regulatory elements to transcription factors, chromatin regulators and non-coding RNAs, other than several transcriptome studies and computational analyses.

Keywords

major depressive disorder --- glioblastoma --- differentially expressed genes --- transcriptomics --- common pathway --- mouse --- miR-25-3p --- Akt1 --- AP-2? --- promoter --- cell metabolism --- p57Kip2 --- CDKN1C --- epigenetics --- disease --- cell differentiation --- placenta --- long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) --- human --- pregnancy --- high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) --- transcriptome --- Rsh regulon --- Novosphingobium pentaromativorans US6-1 --- sphingomonads --- RNA-seq --- N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone --- ppGpp --- selenium --- selenocysteine --- selenoproteins --- selenocysteine insertion sequence --- nonsense-mediated decay --- G-quadruplex --- transcriptional regulation --- promoter --- CRISPR/Cas9 --- PRDM gene family --- TCGA data analysis --- somatic mutations --- transcriptome profiling --- human malignancies --- tristetraprolin (TTP) --- tumorigenesis --- posttranscriptional regulation --- adenosine and uridine-rich elements (AREs) --- circRNA-disease associations --- pathway --- heterogeneous network --- Patau Syndrome --- cytogenetics --- FOXO1 --- transcription factor --- molecular pathways --- bioinformatics --- molecular docking --- and drug design --- transcription regulation --- gene expression --- causal inference --- enhancer activity --- insect --- transcription factors --- structures and functions --- research methods --- progress and prospects --- Pax3 --- Pteria penguin (Röding, 1798) --- tyrosinase --- melanin --- RNA interference --- liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) --- epigenetics --- gene expression --- nutrition --- transcription --- disorders --- mechanisms --- Crassostrea gigas --- Pacific oyster --- pediveliger larvae --- bioadhesive --- transcriptome --- gene expression --- interactome --- microscopy --- fertilization --- self-incompatibility --- transcriptome --- tea --- long non-coding RNAs --- cancer --- acute leukemia --- therapeutic targets --- Adiponectin --- cancer --- Adiponectin receptors --- obesity --- inflammatory response --- inflammation --- nutritional status --- n/a

Dinophysis Toxins: Distribution, Fate in Shellfish and Impacts

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ISBN: 9783039213634 / 9783039213641 Year: Pages: 376 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-364-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Several species of Dinophysis produce one or two groups of lipophilic toxins: okadaic acid (OA) and its derivatives; or the dinophysistoxins (DTXs) (also known as diarrhetic shellfish poisons or DSP toxins) and pectenotoxins (PTXs). DSP toxins are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases, causing gastrointestinal intoxication in consumers of contaminated seafood. Forty years after the identification of Dinophysis as the causative agent of DSP in Japan, contamination of filter feeding shellfish exposed to Dinophysis blooms is recognized as a problem worldwide. DSP events affect public health and cause considerable losses to the shellfish industry. Costly monitoring programs are implemented in regions with relevant shellfish production to prevent these socioeconomic impacts. Harvest closures are enforced whenever toxin levels exceed regulatory limits (RLs). Dinophysis species are kleptoplastidic dinoflagellates; they feed on ciliates (Mesodinium genus) that have previously acquired plastids from cryptophycean (genera Teleaulax, Plagioselmis, and Geminigera) nanoflagellates. The interactions of Dinophysis with different prey regulate their growth and toxin production. When Dinophysis cells are ingested by shellfish, their toxins are partially biotransformed and bioaccumulated, rendering the shellfish unsuitable for human consumption. DSP toxins may also affect shellfish metabolism. This book covers diverse aspects of the abovementioned topics—from the laboratory culture of Dinophysis and the kinetics of uptake, transformation, and depuration of DSP toxins in shellfish to Dinophysis population dynamics, the monitoring and regulation of DSP toxins, and their impact on the shellfish industry in some of the aquaculture regions that are traditionally most affected, namely, northeastern Japan, western Europe, southern Chile, and New Zealand.

Keywords

harmful algal bloom --- Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning --- okadaic acid --- toxin accumulation --- toxin vectors --- trophic transfer --- Brazil --- diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST) --- Mytilus galloprovincialis --- DST accumulation --- DST esterification --- suspended particulate matter (SPM) --- harmful algal blooms --- okadaic acid --- Argopecten irradians --- transcriptomic response --- deep sequencing --- pectenotoxins --- surf clam --- accumulation --- biotransformation --- depuration --- diarrhetic shellfish toxins --- accumulation --- dinophysistoxin --- Japanese scallop --- dinophysis --- LC/MS/MS --- statistical analysis --- Dinophysis --- HAB monitoring --- DSP toxins --- aquaculture --- shellfish toxicity --- human health --- time-series --- seasonality --- Scotland --- DSP toxins --- bivalves --- mussel --- resistance --- RNA-Seq --- qPCR --- metabolism --- defense --- immunity --- DSP toxins --- pectenotoxins --- Dinophysis acuminata --- Mesodinium rubrum --- bacterial community --- high throughput sequencing --- diarrhetic shellfish toxins --- Dinophysis --- wild harvest --- bivalve shellfish --- pipis (Plebidonax deltoides) --- Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) --- okadaic acid --- pectenotoxins --- Dinophysis toxins --- accumulation --- digestion --- biotransformation --- compartmentalization --- depuration --- kinetics --- Dinophysis --- diarrhetic shellfish poisoning --- marine toxins --- pectenotoxin --- okadaic acid --- dinophysistoxin --- okadaic acid --- pectenotoxins --- Dinophysis --- D. acuminata-complex --- D. caudata --- Argopecten purpuratus --- Dinophysis --- Mesodinium --- cryptophytes --- predator-prey preferences --- Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins (DST) --- pectenotoxins (PTXs) --- mixotrophic cultures --- mass culture conditions --- Dinophysis acuminata --- Protoceratium reticulatum --- Reloncaví Fjord --- OMI analysis --- WitOMI analysis --- Mesodinium cf. rubrum --- El Niño Southern Oscillation --- Southern Annual Mode --- Dinophysis acuta --- Dinophysis acuminata --- DSP --- physical–biological interactions --- niche partitioning --- climatic anomaly --- Dinophysis acuminata --- Mesodinium rubrum --- lysate --- organic matter --- diarrhetic shellfish poisoning --- okadaic acid --- dinophysistoxin --- pectenotoxins --- dinophysis --- DSP --- toxins --- OA --- DTX-2 --- PTXs --- Dinophysis acuminata --- dinophysistoxins --- pectenotoxins --- Port Underwood --- New Zealand --- Dinophysis --- Diarrhetic shellfish toxins --- marine biotoxins --- blooms --- n/a

Modern Sample Preparation Approaches for Separation Science

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ISBN: 9783039214112 / 9783039214129 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-412-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This book will provide the most recent knowledge and advances in Sample Preparation Techniques for Separation Science. Everyone working in a laboratory must be familiar with the basis of these technologies, and they often involve elaborate and time-consuming procedures that can take up to 80% of the total analysis time. Sample preparation is an essential step in most of the analytical methods for environmental and biomedical analysis, since the target analytes are often not detected in their in-situ forms, or the results are distorted by interfering species. In the past decade, modern sample preparation techniques have aimed to comply with green analytical chemistry principles, leading to simplification, miniaturization, easy manipulation of the analytical devices, low costs, strong reduction or absence of toxic organic solvents, as well as low sample volume requirements.Modern Sample Preparation Approaches for Separation Science also provides an invaluable reference tool for analytical chemists in the chemical, biological, pharmaceutical, environmental, and forensic sciences.

Keywords

vitamins --- extraction --- determination --- review --- sample preparation --- matrix solid phase dispersion --- sorbent --- miniaturization --- on-line --- blueberry --- non-anthocyanin polyphenol --- vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction --- response surface methodology --- desirability function approach --- nail --- curie temperature --- high-frequency heating --- liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry --- caffeine --- amlodipine --- gas chromatography --- hydrogel --- hormones --- pectin --- polyvinyl alcohol --- sample preparation --- in-tube SPME --- UHPLC-MS/MS --- organic-based monoliths --- antipsychotics --- plasma samples --- schizophrenic’ patients --- salting-out assisted liquid–liquid extraction --- sugaring-out assisted liquid–liquid extraction --- hydrophobic-solvent assisted liquid–liquid extraction --- subzero-temperature assisted liquid–liquid extraction --- phenolic compounds --- sorbent-based techniques --- multi-spheres adsorptive micro-extraction (MSA?E) --- floating sampling technology --- caffeine and acetaminophen tracers --- environmental water matrices --- vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction --- China herbal tea --- pesticides residue --- aflatoxins --- UPLC-MS/MS --- vortex-synchronized matrix solid-phase dispersion --- crab shells --- ionic liquids --- anthraquinones --- Cassiae Semen --- sample preparation --- nanocomposite --- pathogenic --- enrichment --- nucleic acid isolation --- sample preparation with TLC/HPTLC --- solvent front position extraction --- solvent delivery with a moving pipette --- automation --- LC–MS/MS --- environmental analysis --- whole water --- trace analysis --- SPE --- large volume --- in-line filter --- sand --- flow rate --- pharmaceuticals --- hormones --- pesticides --- space instrumentation --- liquid chromatography --- oligopeptides --- trapping system --- membrane-based microextraction --- barbiturates --- simultaneous determination --- whole blood --- urine --- liver --- sample preparation --- oxylipins --- protein precipitation --- liquid–liquid extraction --- solid-phase extraction --- biological samples --- chlorophenoxy acid herbicides --- HPLC --- hydrophobic in-tube solid-phase microextraction --- poly (OMA-co-TRIM) monolithic column --- rice grains --- gold --- sample preparation --- preconcentration --- geological samples

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