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Inflammation in the CNS: Advancing the Field Using Intravital Imaging

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453641 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-364-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Inflammation of the CNS can have devastating, long-lived, and in some cases fatal consequences for patients. The stimuli that can induce CNS inflammation are diverse, and include infectious agents, autoimmune responses against CNS-expressed antigens, and sterile inflammation following ischemia or traumatic injury. In these conditions, cells of the immune system play central roles in promulgation and resolution of the inflammatory response. However, the immunological mechanisms at work in these diverse responses differ according to the nature of the response. Our understanding of the actions of immune cells in the CNS has been restricted by the difficulty in visualising leukocytes as they undergo recruitment from the cerebral microvasculature and following their entry into the CNS parenchyma. However, advances in in vivo microscopy over the last 10-15 years have overcome many of these difficulties, and studies using these forms of microscopy have revealed a wealth of new information regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of CNS inflammation. This Research Topic brings together state of the art reviews examining the use of in vivo imaging in investigating inflammation and leukocyte behaviour in the CNS. Papers in this Research Topic describe how in vivo microscopy has increased our understanding of the actions of immune cells in the inflamed CNS, following various stimuli including autoimmunity, infection and sterile inflammation.

Mechanisms of neuroinflammation and inflammatory neurodegeneration in acute brain injury

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196913 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-691-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Mechanisms of brain-immune interactions became a cutting-edge topic in systemic neurosciences over the past years. Acute lesions of the brain parenchyma, particularly, induce a profound and highly complex neuroinflammatory reaction with similar mechanistic properties between differing disease paradigms like ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Resident microglial cells sense tissue damage and initiate inflammation, activation of the endothelial brain-immune interface promotes recruitment of systemic immune cells to the brain and systemic humoral immune mediators (e.g. complements and cytokines) enter the brain through the damaged blood-brain barrier. These cellular and humoral constituents of the neuroinflammatory reaction to brain injury contribute substantially to secondary brain damage and neurodegeneration. Diverse inflammatory cascades such as pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion of invading leukocytes and direct cell-cell-contact cytotoxicity between lymphocytes and neurons have been demonstrated to mediate the inflammatory ‘collateral damage’ in models of acute brain injury. Besides mediating neuronal cell loss and degeneration, secondary inflammatory mechanisms also contribute to functional modulation of neurons and the impact of post-lesional neuroinflammation can even be detected on the behavioral level. The contribution of several specific immune cell subpopulations to the complex orchestration of secondary neuroinflammation has been revealed just recently. However, the differential vulnerability of specific neuronal cell types and the molecular mechanisms of inflammatory neurodegeneration are still elusive. Furthermore, we are only on the verge of characterizing the control of long-term recovery and neuronal plasticity after brain damage by inflammatory pathways. Yet, a more detailed but also comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted interaction of these two supersystems is of direct translational relevance. Immunotherapeutic strategies currently shift to the center of translational research in acute CNS lesion since all clinical trials investigating direct neuroprotective therapies failed. To advance our knowledge on brain-immune communications after brain damage an interdisciplinary approach covered by cellular neuroscience as well as neuroimmunology, brain imaging and behavioral sciences is crucial to thoroughly depict the intricate mechanisms.

Novel Aspects of Lipoprotein Metabolism with Focus on Systemic Inflammation

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ISBN: 9783039282142 9783039282159 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-215-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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With cardiometabolic diseases still topping the list of mortality causes and in facing the obesity and diabetes epidemic, there remains a great need to better understand the pathophysiological derangements underlying these conditions. During the past years, it has become increasingly appreciated that low grade systemic inflammation is a common hallmark of cardiometabolic disorders—not only concerning diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease but also involving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Recently developed high-throughput laboratory techniques for lipidomics and metabolomics have enabled researchers to discern novel crosstalk pathways between lipid phenotypes and enhanced chronic inflammation. With this Special Issue of the Journal of Clinical Medicine, entitled “Novel Aspects of Lipoprotein Metabolism with a Focus on Systemic Inflammation”, researchers were invited to submit original papers and reviews on various topics, in particular, at the interface of lipid metabolism and inflammation.

Keywords

carbamoylation --- chronic kidney disease --- lipoproteins --- infrared spectroscopy --- Breast cancer --- cholesterol --- 27-hydroxycholesterol --- HDL --- LDL --- cholesterol-lowering therapies --- biomarker --- anti-apolipoprotein A-1 antibodies --- renal transplant recipient --- HDL function --- prognosis --- cholesterol --- acute coronary syndrome --- biomarkers --- anti-apolipoprotein A-I autoantibodies --- GRACE score --- C-statistics --- adipose tissue --- ANGPTL3 --- ANGPTL4 --- ANGPTL8 --- lipid metabolism --- cholesterol efflux capacity --- coronary artery calcium score --- obesity --- anti-apoA-1 IgG --- autoantibodies --- cardiovascular disease --- C-reactive protein --- HDL --- paraoxonase-1 --- cardiovascular disease --- myocardial infarction --- diabetic cardiomyopathy --- cytokines --- interleukin 1? --- inflammation --- CANTOS --- canakinumab --- retinol binding protein 4 --- retinol --- lipoprotein subfractions --- large VLDL --- small LDL --- Type 2 diabetes mellitus --- metabolic syndrome --- nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy --- betaine --- trimethylamine N-oxide related metabolites --- nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy --- type 2 diabetes mellitus --- anti-apolipoprotein A-1 IgG --- familial hypercholesterolemia --- cholesterol homeostasis --- foam cells --- miR-33a --- TLR2/4 --- passive diffusion --- microvesicles --- inflammation --- lipoproteins --- LDL cholesterol --- microparticles --- cardiovascular disease --- platelets --- endothelial cells --- leukocytes --- atherothrombosis --- HDL --- lipids --- inflammation --- atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) --- cardiovascular events --- GlycA --- non-alcoholic fatty liver --- sodium intake --- insulin resistance --- fatty liver index --- hepatic steatosis index --- HOMA-IR --- gut microbiota --- lipoprotein metabolism --- metabolic disorder --- adiponectin --- free thiols --- nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy --- phospholipid transfer protein activity --- triglycerides --- type 2 diabetes mellitus --- large very low density lipoproteins --- ANGPTL8 --- visceral adipose tissue (VAT) --- obesity --- endothelial cells

Diet and Immune Function

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039216123 / 9783039216130 Year: Pages: 314 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-613-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Supporting initiation, development and resolution of appropriate immune responses is key to survival. Many nutrients and dietary components have been purported to have a role in supporting optimal immune function. This is vital throughout the life course, from the development and programming of the immune system in early life, to supporting immunity and reducing chronic inflammation in older people. In this special issue of Nutrients, we examine the evidence for the role of diet and dietary components in promoting protective immunity.

Keywords

inflammation --- toll-like receptor 4 --- obesity --- fatty acids --- protein hydrolysate --- bioactive peptide --- immunomodulation --- Toll-like receptor --- functional foods --- zinc --- sepsis --- biomarker --- supplementation --- homeostasis --- human milk oligosaccharides --- intestinal immune system --- microbiota --- fermented milk --- Th1/Th17 response --- inflammatory process --- growth factors --- breast milk --- immunonutrition --- cytokines --- lymphocytes --- selenocysteine --- macrophage --- T cell --- antibody --- inflammation --- cancer --- adults --- age-related immunity --- deficiency --- elderly --- immunosenescence --- infants --- infection --- micronutrients --- older people --- nutrition --- amino acids --- leukocytes --- skeletal muscle --- gut --- liver --- anorexia nervosa --- inflammatory markers --- inflammation --- cytokines --- chemokines --- adhesion molecules --- carbohydrates --- fiber --- food structure --- formulation --- plant --- microbiota --- inflammation --- metabolism --- nutrition guidelines --- vitamin E --- macrophages --- T cells --- dendritic cells --- immunomodulation --- infection --- polyphenols --- immune system --- inflammation --- molecular mechanisms --- nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) --- arachidonic acid --- mitogen-activated protein Kinase (MAPK) --- cytokines --- oxidative stress --- reactive oxygen species (ROS) --- cyclooxygenase (COX) --- nitric oxide synthase (NOS) --- lipoxygenase (LOX) --- superoxide dismutase (SOD) --- inhibitor of kappa kinase (IKK) --- extra-cellular signal regulated kinases (ERK) --- cancer --- anti-inflammation --- anti-tumorigenic --- chronic inflammatory conditions --- macrophages --- T helper 1 (Th1) --- Th17 --- Treg --- vitamin D --- immune system --- gut microbiota --- autoimmune diseases --- T cells --- weaning --- oligosaccharides --- non-digestible carbohydrates --- metabolites --- gut barrier --- tolerance --- nutrition --- immunity --- macronutrients --- micronutrients --- microbiome --- life course --- probiotic --- prebiotic --- inflammation

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