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Synchronized Factories: Latin America and the Caribbean in the Era of Global Value Chains

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ISBN: 9783319099903 9783319099910 Year: Pages: 141 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-09991-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2014-10-06 14:26:45
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The objective of this report is to examine the extent to which countries in Latin America and the Caribbean participate in global value chains and what are the drivers of such participation. Production processes have been increasingly fragmented worldwide. For example, the production of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner involves 43 suppliers located in 135 locations around the globe. There are many examples like the Dreamliner, from the 451 parts that go into the iPod to the less technologically intensive but still widespread multi-country production of a Barbie doll. All this reflects significant changes in the way world production is being reorganized across national borders. That is, for many goods, production has become a multi-country process in which different stages are carried out in specialized plants in different parts of the world. Countries which specialize in different stages of the production process are thus linked by these global value chains. For developing countries, a clear opportunity from the continuous international fragmentation of production arises in the form of participating in activities that were virtually not opened to them in the past. Therefore, the international fragmentation of production provides opportunities for trade diversification, an issue that can be of particular importance for Latin America and the Caribbean as the region’s export base is in general highly concentrated in a few industries and particularly biased towards natural-resource intensive sectors. The aim is to identify whether there is policy space for implementing strategies that allow countries to improve their position in regional and global value chains.

Agriculture, Diversification, and Gender in Rural Africa

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ISBN: 9780198799283 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198799283.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Subject: Economics --- Gender Studies
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-22 11:01:50
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This book contributes to the understanding of smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa through addressing the dynamics of intensification and diversification within and outside agriculture, in contexts where women have much poorer access to agrarian resources than men. It uses a longitudinal cross-country comparative approach, relying on the Afrint dataset—unique household-level longitudinal data for six African countries collected over the period 2002–2013/15. The book first descriptively summarizes findings from the third wave of the dataset. The book nuances the current dominance of structural transformation narratives of agricultural change by adding insights from gender and village-level studies of agrarian change. It argues that placing agrarian change within broader livelihood dynamics outside agriculture, highlighting country- and region-specific contexts is an important analytical adaptation to the empirical realities of rural Africa. From the policy perspective, this book provides suggestions for more inclusive rural development policies, outlining the weaknesses of present policies illustrated by the currently gendered inequalities in access to agrarian resources. The book also provides country-specific insights from Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Zambia.

Linkages in South African Economic Development

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Book Series: Forschungsergebnisse der Wirtschaftsuniversitaet Wien ISBN: 9783631587010 Year: Pages: 212 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:26
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How can South Africa diversify its industrial sector so that it is less dependent on mineral exports, increases labour absorption and reduces unemployment? This book sheds more light on the structure of South Africa’s economy, its industrial sector and inter-sectoral linkages by simulating an economic geography model of the vertical linkages type, by testing linkage strength econometrically and by analysing industrial policy’s role in shaping its development path. It finds that linkages did play an important role in industrial development in South Africa, yet they have often been reinforced by policy interventions. Industrial policy is still geared to benefit the sectors close to the country’s mineral endowment, and thus contributes to South Africa‘s lopsided industrial development.

Aspects of Poverty and Inequality in Cameroon

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Book Series: Goettinger Studien zur Entwicklungsoekonomik / Goettingen Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9783631595350 Year: Pages: 171 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:28
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Poverty and inequality remain extremely high for Cameroon despite improvements in poverty figures between 1996 and 2001. To understand the dynamics of poverty and inequality between 1996 and 2001, this book develops a poverty and inequality profile, investigates the sources of inequality along spatial lines and simulates some policies which could be used in the reduction of poverty and inequality. The book also addresses two major sectors of the Cameroonian economy with a special focus on gender bias in agriculture and linkages between the formal and informal sector. The empirical analyses show that there are large spatial differences in poverty in Cameroon and that sources of inequality vary by location. Regardless of the definition used, the informal sector in Cameroon is extremely large but closely linked to the formal sector. The gender bias experienced by women in access to productive assets in agriculture reduces the efficiency of agricultural production.

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