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Carbon Capture and Storage

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ISBN: 9783039213993 9783039214006 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-400-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Climate change is one of the main threats to modern society. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in greenhouse gas (GHGs, mainly carbon dioxide—CO2) emissions due to anthropogenic activities. The main causes are the burning of fossil fuels and land use change (deforestation). Climate change impacts are associated with risks to basic needs (health, food security, and clean water), as well as risks to development (jobs, economic growth, and the cost of living). The processes involving CO2 capture and storage are gaining attention in the scientific community as an alternative for decreasing CO2 emissions, reducing its concentration in ambient air. The carbon capture and storage (CCS) methodologies comprise three steps: CO2 capture, CO2 transportation, and CO2 storage. Despite the high research activity within this topic, several technological, economic, and environmental issues as well as safety problems remain to be solved, such as the following needs: increase of CO2 capture efficiency, reduction of process costs, and verification of the environmental sustainability of CO2 storage.

Rainfall Erosivity in Soil Erosion Processes

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ISBN: 9783039288045 / 9783039288052 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-805-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This book gathers recent international research on the association between aggressive rainfall and soil loss and landscape degradation. Different contributions explore these complex relationships and highlight the importance of the spatial patterns of precipitation intensity on land flow under erosive storms, with the support of observational and modelling data. This is a large and multifaceted area of research of growing importance that outlines the challenge of protecting land from natural hazards. The increase in the number of high temporal resolution rainfall records together with the development of new modelling capabilities has opened up new opportunities for the use of large-scale planning and risk prevention methods. These new perspectives should no longer be considered as an independent research topic, but should, above all, support comprehensive land use planning, which is at the core of environmental decision-making and operations. Textbooks such as this one demonstrate the significance of how hydrological science can enable tangible progress in understanding the complexity of water management and its current and future challenges.

Afforestation and Reforestation: Drivers, Dynamics, and Impacts

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ISBN: 9783039214471 9783039214488 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-448-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Afforestation/reforestation (or forestation) has been implemented worldwide as an effective measure towards sustainable ecosystem services and addresses global environmental problems such as climate change. The conversion of grasslands, croplands, shrublands, or bare lands to forests can dramatically alter forest water, energy, and carbon cycles and, thus, ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration, soil erosion control, and water quality improvement). Large-scale afforestation/reforestation is typically driven by policies and, in turn, can also have substantial socioeconomic impacts. To enable success, forestation endeavors require novel approaches that involve a series of complex processes and interdisciplinary sciences. For example, exotic or fast-growing tree species are often used to improve soil conditions of degraded lands or maximize productivity, and it often takes a long time to understand and quantify the consequences of such practices at watershed or regional scales. Maintaining the sustainability of man-made forests is becoming increasingly challenging under a changing environment and disturbance regime changes such as wildland fires, urbanization, drought, air pollution, climate change, and socioeconomic change. Therefore, this Special Issue focuses on case studies of the drivers, dynamics, and impacts of afforestation/reforestation at regional, national, or global scales. These new studies provide an update on the scientific advances related to forestation. This information is urgently needed by land managers and policy makers to better manage forest resources in today’s rapidly changing environments.

Managing Forests and Water for People under a Changing Environment

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ISBN: 9783039288236 / 9783039288243 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-824-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Forests cover 30% of the Earth’s land area, or nearly four billion hectares. Enhancing the benefits and ecosystem services of forests has been increasingly recognized as an essential part of nature-based solutions for solving many emerging global environmental problems today. A core science supporting forest management is understanding the interactions of forests, water, and people. These interactions have become increasingly complex under climate change and its associated impacts, such as the increases in the intensity and frequency of drought and floods, increasing population and deforestation, and a rise in global demands for multiple ecosystem services including clean water supply and carbon sequestration. Forest watershed managers have recognized that water management is an essential component of forest management. Global environmental change is posing more challenges for managing forests and water toward sustainable development. New science on forest and water is critically needed across the globe. The International Forests and Water Conference 2018, Valdivia, Chile (http://forestsandwater2018.cl/), a joint effort of the 5th IUFRO International Conference on Forests and Water in a Changing Environment and the Second Latin American Conference on Forests and Water provided a unique forum to examine forest and water issues in Latin America under a global context. This book represents a collection of some of the peer-reviewed papers presented at the conference that were published in a Special Issue of Forests.

Climate Variability and Climate Change Impacts on Land Surface, Hydrological Processes and Water Management

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039215072 9783039215089 Year: Pages: 460 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-508-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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During the last several decades, Earth´s climate has undergone significant changes due to anthropogenic global warming, and feedbacks to the water cycle. Therefore, persistent efforts are required to improve our understanding of hydrological processes and to engage in efficient water management strategies that explicitly consider changing environmental conditions. The twenty-four contributions in this book have broadly addressed topics across four major research areas: (1) Climate and land-use change impacts on hydrological processes, (2) hydrological trends and causality analysis faced in hydrology, (3) hydrological model simulations and predictions, and (4) reviews on water prices and climate extremes. The broad spectrum of international contributions to the Special Issue indicates that climate change impacts on water resources analysis attracts global attention. We hope that the collection of articles presented here can provide scientists, policymakers and stakeholders alike with insights that support sustainable decision-making in the face of climate change and increasingly scarce environmental resources.

Keywords

hydrological drought --- Three Gorges Dam --- GRACE --- compound extremes --- climate change --- multivariate distribution --- quantile regression --- indicator --- PUB --- rainfall-runoff experiments --- distributed hydrological model --- Hydro-Informatic Modelling System (HIMS) --- freshwater availability --- runoff --- simulated rainfall --- plot scale --- litter layer --- topsoil --- karst --- Yellow River Delta --- estuarine wetlands --- spatiotemporal change analysis --- remote sensing --- intra-annual climate change --- variation in percentage of flood-season precipitation --- natural streamflow variation --- contribution and sensitivity analysis --- Yellow River --- highland agricultural field area --- diffuse pollutant discharge --- multiple regression model --- climate change --- jackknife validation --- water security --- water pricing --- sustainable water management --- trends and patterns --- economics --- precipitation --- air temperature --- river discharge --- Mann-Kendall test --- Selenga river basin --- Lake Baikal basin --- Mongolia --- snowfall to precipitation ratio --- WRF model --- arid region --- Xinjiang --- water resources management --- climate change --- LULCC --- Budyko equation --- streamflow --- drought --- climate variability --- land surface change --- runoff --- Budyko framework --- elasticity coefficient --- Weihe River Basin --- flood --- streamflow --- CMIP5 --- climate change --- HEC-RAS --- trend analysis --- precipitation --- temperature --- eco-region --- Ethiopia --- Three Gorges Project --- dam --- runoff changes --- flood control --- Yangtze River --- benefits --- evapotranspiration --- Pan evaporation --- TFPW-MK --- Haihe River Basin --- hydrological simulation --- quantitative analysis --- SWAT model --- land use/cover change --- climate change --- scenario simulation --- Climate variability --- Large-scale climate indices --- Reservoir inflow forecasting --- Ensemble empirical mode decomposition --- Time series model --- Artificial intelligence model --- grid-based --- HRU-based --- SHM --- SWAT --- large scale basin --- climate change --- human activities --- power operations --- cascade joint operation chart --- inter-basin water transfer project --- climate change --- MATOPIBA agricultural frontier --- water security --- hydroclimatic analysis --- water conflicts --- average annual runoff --- runoff map --- hydrological model --- GIS --- DPR Korea --- streamflow reduction --- climate change --- coal mining --- SWCM --- coal mining concentrated watershed --- the Loess Plateau --- hydrology --- land cover --- land use and climate change --- water resources management --- macro scale modeling --- climate variability --- climate change --- land use change --- hydrological processes --- trends --- water management --- model --- predictions

Entropy Applications in Environmental and Water Engineering

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038972228 Year: Pages: 512 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-223-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Entropy theory has wide applications to a range of problems in the fields of environmental and water engineering, including river hydraulic geometry, fluvial hydraulics, water monitoring network design, river flow forecasting, floods and droughts, river network analysis, infiltration, soil moisture, sediment transport, surface water and groundwater quality modeling, ecosystems modeling, water distribution networks, environmental and water resources management, and parameter estimation. Such applications have used several different entropy formulations, such as Shannon, Tsallis, Reacutenyi Burg, Kolmogorov, Kapur, configurational, and relative entropies, which can be derived in time, space, or frequency domains. More recently, entropy-based concepts have been coupled with other theories, including copula and wavelets, to study various issues associated with environmental and water resources systems. Recent studies indicate the enormous scope and potential of entropy theory in advancing research in the fields of environmental and water engineering, including establishing and explaining physical connections between theory and reality. The objective of this Special Issue is to provide a platform for compiling important recent and current research on the applications of entropy theory in environmental and water engineering. The contributions to this Special Issue have addressed many aspects associated with entropy theory applications and have shown the enormous scope and potential of entropy theory in advancing research in the fields of environmental and water engineering.

Keywords

complexity --- streamflow --- water level --- composite multiscale sample entropy --- trend --- Poyang Lake basin --- four-parameter exponential gamma distribution --- principle of maximum entropy --- precipitation frequency analysis --- methods of moments --- maximum likelihood estimation --- flood frequency analysis --- generalized gamma (GG) distribution --- principle of maximum entropy (POME) --- entropy theory --- principle of maximum entropy (POME) --- GB2 distribution --- flood frequency analysis --- non-point source pollution --- ANN --- entropy weighting method --- data-scarce --- multi-events --- spatio-temporal variability --- soil water content --- entropy --- arid region --- joint entropy --- NDVI --- temperature --- precipitation --- groundwater depth --- Hei River basin --- turbulent flow --- canopy flow --- randomness --- coherent structures --- Shannon entropy --- Kolmogorov complexity --- entropy --- information transfer --- optimization --- radar --- rainfall network --- water resource carrying capacity --- forewarning model --- entropy of information --- fuzzy analytic hierarchy process --- projection pursuit --- accelerating genetic algorithm --- entropy production --- conditional entropy production --- stochastic processes --- scaling --- climacogram --- turbulence --- water resources vulnerability --- connection entropy --- changing environment --- set pair analysis --- Anhui Province --- cross-entropy minimization --- land suitability evaluation --- spatial optimization --- monthly streamflow forecasting --- Burg entropy --- configurational entropy --- entropy spectral analysis time series analysis --- entropy --- water monitoring --- network design --- hydrometric network --- information theory --- entropy applications --- hydrological risk analysis --- maximum entropy-copula method --- uncertainty --- Loess Plateau --- entropy --- water engineering --- Tsallis entropy --- principle of maximum entropy --- Lagrangian function --- probability distribution function --- flux concentration relation --- uncertainty --- information --- informational entropy --- variation of information --- continuous probability distribution functions --- confidence intervals --- precipitation --- variability --- marginal entropy --- crop yield --- Hexi corridor --- flow duration curve --- Shannon entropy --- entropy parameter --- modeling --- spatial and dynamics characteristic --- hydrology --- tropical rainfall --- statistical scaling --- Tsallis entropy --- multiplicative cascades --- Beta-Lognormal model --- rainfall forecast --- cross entropy --- ant colony fuzzy clustering --- combined forecast --- information entropy --- mutual information --- kernel density estimation --- ENSO --- nonlinear relation --- scaling laws --- power laws --- water distribution networks --- robustness --- flow entropy --- entropy theory --- frequency analysis --- hydrometeorological extremes --- Bayesian technique --- rainfall --- entropy ensemble filter --- ensemble model simulation criterion --- EEF method --- bootstrap aggregating --- bagging --- bootstrap neural networks --- El Niño --- ENSO --- neural network forecast --- sea surface temperature --- tropical Pacific --- entropy --- cross elasticity --- mean annual runoff --- water resources --- resilience --- quaternary catchment --- complement --- substitute --- entropy theory --- complex systems --- hydraulics --- hydrology --- water engineering --- environmental engineering

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