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Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453399 Year: Pages: 163 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-339-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Abstract

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are evolutionarily conserved in all eukaryotes and allow cells to respond to changes in the physical and chemical properties of the environment and to produce an appropriate response by altering many cellular functions. MAPKs are among the most intensively studied signal transduction systems. MAPK research is a very dynamic field in which new perspectives are continuously opening to the scientific community. Importantly, many MAPK inhibitors have been developed during the last years and are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical assays for inflammatory diseases and cancer treatment. In this research topic, we have gathered 14 papers covering recent advances in different aspects of the MAPK research area that have provided valuable insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics, the regulation and functions of MAPK pathways, as well as their therapeutic potential. We hope that this Research Topic helps readers to have a better understanding of the progresses that have been made recently in the field of MAPK signalling. A deeper understanding of the these pathways will facilitate the development of innovative therapeutic approaches.

Keywords

MAPK --- p38 --- ERK --- JNK --- MSK --- kinase --- scaffold --- cancer --- inflammation --- cell differentiation

Dual Specificity Phosphatases: From Molecular Mechanisms to Biological Function

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ISBN: 9783039216888 / 9783039216895 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-689-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Dual specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) constitute a heterogeneous group of protein tyrosine phosphatases with the ability to dephosphorylate Ser/Thr and Tyr residues from proteins, as well as from other non-proteinaceous substrates including signaling lipids. DUSPs include, among others, MAP kinase (MAPK) phosphatases (MKPs) and small-size atypical DUSPs. MKPs are enzymes specialized in regulating the activity and subcellular location of MAPKs, whereas the function of small-size atypical DUSPs seems to be more diverse. DUSPs have emerged as key players in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, stress response, and apoptosis. DUSPs regulate essential physiological processes, including immunity, neurobiology and metabolic homeostasis, and have been implicated in tumorigenesis, pathological inflammation and metabolic disorders. Accordingly, alterations in the expression or function of MKPs and small-size atypical DUSPs have consequences essential to human disease, making these enzymes potential biological markers and therapeutic targets. This Special Issue covers recent advances in the molecular mechanisms and biological functions of MKPs and small-size atypical DUSPs, and their relevance in human disease.

Development and Application of Herbal Medicine from Marine Origin

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ISBN: 9783039212217 / 9783039212224 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-222-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Marine herbal medicine generally refers to the use of marine plants as original materials to develop crude drugs, or for other medical purposes. The term ‘marine plants’ usually denotes macroalgae grown between intertidal and subintertidal zones, including Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, and Rhodophyta. Considerable progress has been made in the field of biomedical research into marine microalgae and microorganisms in the past decade. As the most important source of fundamental products in the world, marine plants have a very important role in biomedical research. Furthermore, worldwide studies have consistently demonstrated that many crude drugs derived from marine plants contain novel ingredients that may benefit health or can be used in the treatment of diseases; some have been developed into health foods, and some even into drugs. It is expected that there are many substances of marine plant origin that will have medical applications in terms of improving human health and are awaiting discovery.In this Special Issue, entitled “Development and Application of Herbal Medicine of Marine Origin”, we will provide a platform for researchers to publish biomedical studies on substances of marine plant origin. We welcome submissions from scientists and academics from across the world.

Research of Pathogenesis and Novel Therapeutics in Arthritis

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ISBN: 9783038970651 / 9783038970668 Year: Pages: 366 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-066-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Arthritis has a high prevalence globally and includes over 100 different types, the most common of which are rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and inflammatory arthritis. The exact etiology of arthritis remains unclear and no cure exists. Anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used in the treatment of arthritis but are associated with significant side effects. Novel modes of therapy and additional prognostic biomarkers are urgently needed for arthritis patients. This book summarizes and discusses the global picture of the current understanding of arthritis.

Keywords

biosimilars --- Th9 lymphocytes --- rheumatoid arthritis --- infliximab --- rheumatoid arthritis --- bone erosion --- osteoblasts --- next-generation sequencing --- bioinformatics --- microRNA --- messenger RNA --- osteoarthritis --- cell signaling --- IL1? --- WNT --- antagonists --- computational modeling --- nitric oxide --- clodronate --- gene expression --- osteoarthritis --- progenitor cells --- SOX9 --- spondyloarthropathies --- inflammation --- mesenchymal stem cells --- visfatin --- IL-6 --- TNF-? --- osteoarthritis --- miR-199a-5p --- Epstein-Barr virus --- glycoprotein 42 --- rheumatoid arthritis --- shared epitope --- triptolide --- rheumatoid arthritis --- basic research --- clinical translation --- osteoarthritis (OA) --- articular cartilage --- molecular pathology --- therapeutics --- rheumatoid arthritis --- antibodies --- collagen --- glycosylation --- disease pathways --- therapy --- experimental arthritis --- TNF? --- etanercept --- infliximab --- adalimumab --- certolizumab pegol --- golimumab --- rheumatoid arthritis --- therapeutic antibody --- structure --- fraxinellone --- collagen-induced arthritis --- rheumatoid arthritis --- inflammatory arthritis --- osteoclastogenesis --- sclareol --- rheumatoid arthritis --- synovial cell --- collagen --- mice --- cytokines --- Th17 --- MAPK --- arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- rheumatoid arthritis --- small-molecule inhibitor --- chondrocytes --- tumor necrosis factor-alpha --- inflammation --- rheumatoid arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- angiogenesis --- cytokines --- chemokines --- early osteoarthritis --- articular cartilage --- proliferation --- fibroblast growth factor 2 --- mitogen activated protein kinase --- transforming growth factor ? --- SMA- and MAD-related protein --- interleukin --- nuclear factor kappa B --- miRNA --- adjuvant arthritis --- arthritis --- biomarkers --- celastrol --- inflammation --- microRNA --- miRNA --- rat --- rheumatoid arthritis --- Traditional Chinese medicine --- tripterine --- triterpenoid --- spinal fusion --- biological --- osteoblast --- osteoclast --- bisphosphonate --- parathyroid hormone --- bone morphogenetic protein --- receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B --- stem cell --- drug delivery system --- anticitrullinated peptide antibodies --- antirheumatic drug --- autoimmune --- disease-modifying --- immunology --- pathology --- rheumatoid factor --- rheumatoid arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- adipokines --- obesity --- rheumatoid arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- anti-arthritis --- biomarkers

Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents

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ISBN: 9783039215720 / 9783039215737 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-573-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Acute inflammation is a highly regulated process, and its dysregulation can lead to the development of a chronic inflammatory state which is believed to play a main role in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer. In recent years, the need to find new anti-inflammatory molecules has raised the scientific community´s interest for marine natural products. In this regard, the marine environment represents a source for isolating a wealth of bioactive compounds. In this Special Issue, the reported products have been obtained from microalgae, sea cucumber, octopus, squid, red alga-derived fungus, cnidarians, hard-shelled mussel, and sponges.

Keywords

THP-1 macrophages --- anti-inflammatory --- TLR4 --- NF-?B --- MAPK --- SPR analysis --- glycolipids --- MGDG --- skin --- inflammation --- epidermal hyperplasia --- microalgae --- Isochrysis galbana --- Frondanol --- Cucumaria frondosa --- DSS colitis --- colon inflammation --- zoantharia --- Tropical Eastern Pacific --- Zoanthus pulchellus --- zoanthamine --- inflammation --- fucoxanthin --- inflammation --- epidermal hyperplasia --- UVB --- photoprotection --- 6-bromoindole --- Geodia barretti --- anti-inflammatory activity --- dendritic cells --- T cell differentiation --- poor blood circulation --- Ecklonia cava --- phlorotannins --- pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6-bieckol --- functional ingredients --- endothelial cell death --- vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration --- inflammation --- anti-inflammatory --- bioactive molecules --- microalgae --- polysaccharides --- carotenoids --- polyunsaturated fatty acids --- fucoxanthin --- ultraviolet B --- denervation --- seafood waste --- polyunsaturated fatty acid --- NO inhibition --- fish oil --- marine nutraceuticals --- fish oil --- omega-3 --- eicosapentaenoic acid --- docosahexaenoic acid --- inflammation --- eicosanoid --- cytokine --- surgery --- critical illness --- parenteral nutrition --- signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) --- matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) --- interleukin (IL) --- lipopolysaccharide (LPS) --- acute sickness behavior --- acute lung injury (ALI) --- prostaglandins --- clavulones --- punaglandins --- thromboxane --- inflammation --- marine vertebrates --- marine invertebrates --- diatoms --- macroalgae --- fucoxanthin --- rosmarinic acid --- NRLP3 --- inflammasome --- anti-oxidative --- anti-inflammatory --- photo-protection --- UVB

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