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The cognitive and neural organisation of speech processing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197750 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-774-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Speech production and perception are two of the most complex actions humans perform. The processing of speech is studied across various fields and using a wide variety of research approaches. These fields include, but are not limited to, (socio)linguistics, phonetics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology, and cognitive neuroscience. Research approaches range from behavioural studies to neuroimaging techniques such as Magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography (MEG/EEG) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), as well as neurophysiological approaches, such as the recording of Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs), and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Each of these approaches provides valuable information about specific aspects of speech processing. Behavioural testing can inform about the nature of the cognitive processes involved in speech processing, neuroimaging methods show where (fMRI and MEG) in the brain these processes take place and/or elucidate on the time-course of activation of these brain areas (EEG and MEG), while neurophysiological methods (MEPs and TMS) can assess critical involvement of brain regions in the cognitive process. Yet, what is currently unclear is how speech researchers can combine methods such that a convergent approach adds to theory/model formulation, above and beyond the contribution of individual component methods? We expect that such combinations of approaches will significantly forward theoretical development in the field. The present research topic comprise a collection of manuscripts discussing the cognitive and neural organisation of speech processing, including speech production and perception at the level of individual speech sounds, syllables, words, and sentences. Our goal was to use findings from a variety of disciplines, perspectives, and approaches to gain a more complete picture of the organisation of speech processing. The contributions are grouped around the following five main themes: 1) Spoken language comprehension under difficult listening conditions; 2) Sub-lexical processing; 3) Sensorimotor processing of speech; 4) Speech production. The contributions used a variety of research approaches, including behavioural experiments, fMRI, EEG, MEG, and TMS. Twelve of the 14 contributions were on speech perception processing, and the remaining two examined speech production. This Research Topic thus displays a wide variety of topics and research methods and this comprehensive approach allows an integrative understanding of currently available evidence as well as the identification of concrete venues for future research.

Keywords

Speech --- Perception --- production --- TMS --- fMRI --- EEG --- MEG --- behavioural

Morphologically complex words in the mind/brain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198030 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-803-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The question of how morphologically complex words (assign-ment, listen-ed) are represented and processed in the brain has been one of the most hotly debated topics in the cognitive neuroscience of language. Do complex words engage cortical representations and processes equivalent to single lexical objects or are they processed as sequences of separate morpheme-like units? Research on morphological processing has suggested that adults make efficient use of both lexical (i.e., whole word) storage and retrieval, as well as combinatorial computation in processing morphologically complex words. Psycholinguistic studies have demonstrated that processing of complex words can be affected both by properties of the morphemes and the whole words, such as their frequency, transparency, and regularity. Furthermore, this research has been informative about the time-course of complex word recognition and production, and the role of morphological structure in these processes. At the neural level, left-hemisphere inferior frontal and superior temporal areas, and negative-going event-related potentials, have been consistently associated with morphological processing. While most previous research has been done on the recognition of morphologically complex words in adult native speakers, much less is known about neurocognitive processes involved in the on-line production of morphologically complex words, and even less on morphological processing in children and non-native speakers. Moreover, we have limited understanding of how linguistically distinct morphological processes, e.g. inflectional (listen-ed) versus derivational (assign-ment), are handled by the cortical language networks. This e-book gives an up-to-date overview of the questions currently addressed in the field of morphological processing. It highlights the significance of morphological information in language processing, both written and spoken, as assessed by a variety of methods and approaches. It also points to a number of unresolved issues, and provides future directions for research in this key area of cognitive neuroscience of language.

Keywords

morphology --- derivation --- inflection --- Compound --- L2 --- Dyslexia --- ERP --- MEG --- semantics --- decomposition

Recent Advances and Challenges on Big Data Analysis in Neuroimaging

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451289 Year: Pages: 195 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-128-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Big data is revolutionizing our ability to measure and study the human brain. New technology increases the resolution of images that are being study as well as enables researchers to study the brain as it functions. These technological advances are combined with efforts to collect neuroimaging data on large numbers of subjects, in some cases longitudinally. This combination of advances in measurement and scope of studies requires novel development in the statistical analysis. Fast, scalable, robust and accurate models and approaches need to be developed to make headway on these problems. This volume represents a unique collection of researchers providing deep insights on the statistical analysis of big neuroimaging data.

Neural Signal Estimation in the Human Brain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199235 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-923-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The ultimate goal of functional brain imaging is to provide optimal estimates of the neural signals flowing through the long-range and local pathways mediating all behavioral performance and conscious experience. In functional MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), despite its impressive spatial resolution, this goal has been somewhat undermined by the fact that the fMRI response is essentially a blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal that only indirectly reflects the nearby neural activity. The vast majority of fMRI studies restrict themselves to describing the details of these BOLD signals and deriving non-quantitative inferences about their implications for the underlying neural activity. This Frontiers Research Topic welcomed empirical and theoretical contributions that focus on the explicit relationship of non-invasive brain imaging signals to the causative neural activity. The articles presented within this resulting eBook aim to both highlight the importance and improve the non-invasive estimation of neural signals in the human brain. To achieve this aim, the following issues are targeted:(1) The spatial limitations of source localization when using MEG/EEG.(2) The coupling of the BOLD signal to neural activity. Articles discuss how animal studies are fundamental in increasing our understanding of BOLD fMRI signals, analyze how non-neuronal cell types may contribute to the modulation of cerebral blood flow, and use modeling to improve our understanding of how local field potentials are linked to the BOLD signal.(3) The contribution of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal activity to the BOLD signal.(4) Assessment of neural connectivity through the use of resting state data, computational modeling and functional Diffusion Tensor Imaging (fDTI) approaches.

Society, Organizations and the Brain: building towards a unified cognitive neuroscience perspective

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195800 Year: Pages: 205 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-580-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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This e-book brings together scholars in both the neurosciences and organizational sciences who have adopted various approaches to study the cognitive mechanisms mediating the social behavior that we see within organizations. Such an approach has been termed by ourselves, and others, as ‘organisational cognitive neuroscience’. In recent years there has been a veritable increase in studies that have explored the cognitive mechanisms driving such behaviors, and much progress has been made in understanding the neural underpinnings of processes such as financial exchange, risk awareness and even leadership. However, while these studies are informative and add to our understanding of human cognition they fall short of providing evidence-based recommendations for practice. Specifically, we address the broader issue of how the neuroscientific study of such core social behaviors can be used to improve the very way that we work. To address these gaps in our understanding the chapters in this book serve as a platform that allows scholars in both the neurosciences and the organizational sciences to highlight the work that spans across these two fields. The consolidation of these two fields also serves to highlight the utility of a singular organizational cognitive neuroscience. This is a fundamentally important outcome of the book as the application of neuroscience to address economically relevant behaviors has seen a variety of fields evolve in their own right, such as neuromarketing, neuroeconomics and so forth. The use of neuro-scientific technologies,in particular fMRI, has indeed led to a bewildering (and somewhat suffocating) proliferation of new approaches, however, the speed of such developments demands that we must proceed carefully with such ventures or risk some fundamental mistakes. The book that you now hold will consolidates these new neuroscience based approaches and in doing so highlight the importance of this approach in helping us to understand human social behavior in general. Taken together the chapters provide a framework for scholars within the neurosciences who wish to explore the further the opportunities that the study of organisational behavior may provide.

New Insights on Basic and Clinical Aspects of EEG and MEG Connectome

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455317 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-531-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Recent advances in the neuroimaging field areas allow us to visualize the aggregate of neural connections at the macroscopic level within the brain, the so-called “connectome”. In order to promote the development of the neurophysiological investigation of connectome of brain oscillations, this eBook aims at bringing together contributions from researchers in basic and clinical neuroscience using EEG and MEG connectome analysis. The most important focal point will be to address the functional roles of connectome of brain oscillations in contributing to understandings of higher cognitive processes in normal subjects and pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases. This Research Topic presented novel methodologies and various applications of neurophysiological connectome analysis. As a result, these papers were cited more than 120 times in these four years in total and threw light and impact on new directions for investigating the connectome of human brain.

Cortico-cortical Communication Dynamics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192885 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-288-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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Neurons communicate by sending action potentials down their axons and release neurotransmitter at the synapses with target neurons in nearby or remote regions. Although we know the approximate connectivity of cortico-cortical axons in several species, this does not enable us to predict the communication dynamics. The cortico-cortical communication dynamics specify how the communication evolves in real time and cortical space ms by ms. Currently we are only beginning to appreciate this space-time dynamics from multielectrode recordings, imaging of Ca2+ transients and membrane voltage simultaneously over several areas during brain tasks, perception or preparation for behavior. The results from such experiments indeed challenge traditional ideas of cortico-cortical communications. The communication dynamics in these conditions differ somewhat from that present in steady states that are characterized as fix points or as oscillatory states (limit cycles). There are, however, realistic computational models of communications between several areas or the whole cortex, which have been able to express communication dynamics mimicking the experimentally obtained results during brain tasks, such as perception and decision making. This Research Topic issue will welcome communications in any form, experimental, theoretical, conceptual, and even better combinations of these, on real time cortico-cortical communication dynamics. The introductions must include sections of review character – helping readers outside the field to understand the context in which the contribution is placed.

Brain Oscillations in Human Communication

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454587 Year: Pages: 199 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-458-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Brain oscillations, or neural rhythms, reflect widespread functional connections between large-scale neural networks, as well as within cortical networks. As such they have been related to many aspects of human behaviour. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the role of brain oscillations at distinct frequency bands in cognitive, sensory and motor tasks. Consequentially, those rhythms also affect diverse aspects of human communication. On the one hand, this comprises verbal communication; a field where the understanding of neural mechanisms has seen huge advances in recent years. Speech is inherently organised in a rhythmic manner. For example, time scales of phonemes and syllables, but also formal prosodic aspects such as intonation and stress, fall into distinct frequency bands. Likewise, neural rhythms in the brain play a role in speech segmentation and coding of continuous speech at multiple time scales, as well as in the production of speech. On the other hand, human communication involves widespread and diverse nonverbal aspects where the role of neural rhythms is far less understood. This can be the enhancement of speech processing through visual signals, thought to be guided via brain oscillations, or the conveying of emotion, which results in differential rhythmic modulations in the observer. Additionally, body movements and gestures often have a communicative purpose and are known to modulate sensorimotor rhythms in the observer. This Research Topic of Frontiers in Human Neuroscience highlights the diverse aspects of human communication that are shaped by rhythmic activity in the brain. Relevant contributions are presented from various fields including cognitive and social neuroscience, neuropsychiatry, and methodology. As such they provide important new insights into verbal and non-verbal communication, pathological changes, and methodological innovations.

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