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Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Healthy and Diseased Brain Networks

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194353 Year: Pages: 365 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-435-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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An important aspect of neuroscience is to characterize the underlying connectivity patterns of the human brain (i.e., human connectomics). Over the past few years, researchers have demonstrated that by combining a variety of different neuroimaging technologies (e.g., structural MRI, diffusion MRI and functional MRI) with sophisticated analytic strategies such as graph theory, it is possible to noninvasively map the patterns of structural and functional connectivity of human whole-brain networks. With these novel approaches, many studies have shown that human brain networks have nonrandom properties such as modularity, small-worldness and highly connected hubs. Importantly, these quantifiable network properties change with age, learning and disease. Moreover, there is growing evidence for behavioral and genetic correlates. Network analysis of neuroimaging data is opening up a new avenue of research into the understanding of the organizational principles of the brain that will be of interest for all basic scientists and clinical researchers. Such approaches are powerful but there are a number of challenging issues when extracting reliable brain networks from various imaging modalities and analyzing the topological properties, e.g., definitions of network nodes and edges and reproducibility of network analysis. We assembled contributions related to the state-of-the-art methodologies of brain connectivity and the applications involving development, aging and neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and mood and anxiety disorders. It is anticipated that the articles in this Research Topic will provide a greater range and depth of provision for the field of imaging connectomics.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Patients with Implanted Cardiac Pacemakers

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Book Series: Karlsruhe transactions on biomedical engineering / Ed.: Universität Karlsruhe (TH) / Institute of Biomedical Engineering ISSN: 18645933 ISBN: 9783866446106 Year: Volume: 10 Pages: 156 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000021187 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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The aim of this work was to identify the patterns that can induce heating around implanted cardiac pacemakers during MRI and to develop strategies to counteract them. Two approaches were taken: computer simulations of the occurring electromagnetic field distributions and in-vitro experiments using phantoms in real MRI devices, both for conventional bore-hole and new open MRI systems. Using the open MRI, the observed heating could be reduced significantly.

Neural Implementations of Expertise

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196883 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-688-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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When we think about expertise, we usually consider people who master tasks at a level not reachable by most other people. Although we rarely realise it, however, most humans are experts in many aspects of everyday life. This expertise enables us to find our way through a complex environment that is our life. For instance, we can instantly recognise multiple objects and relations between them to form a meaningful unit, such as an office. Thus, research on expertise is not only important to investigate the cognitive and neural processes within an “elite” group, but it is also a powerful tool to understand how everyone can acquire complex skills. The goal of this Research Topic is to shed further light on the common and distinct neural mechanisms that implement various kinds of expertise. We broadly define expertise as skill in any perceptual, cognitive, social or motor domain, with the common core being optimised information processing due to knowledge acquired from repeated experiences. Thus, we are interested in the full range of mental processes modulated or modified by expertise, from “simple” object or pattern recognition to complex decision making or problem solving in a particular domain. These domains can range from everyday or occupational expertise to sports and rather artificial domains such as board games. In all cases, the aim should be to elucidate how the brain implements these sometimes incredible feats. We are particularly interested in connecting cognitive theories about expertise and expertise-related performance differences with models and data on the neural implementation of expertise. We welcome original research contributions using the full range of behavioural neuroscience methods, as well as theoretical, methodological or historical reviews, and opinion papers focusing on any of the above-mentioned aspects.

Keywords

Expertise --- Sport --- Board games --- Music --- Language --- Perception --- MRI --- fMRI --- EEG

MAPPING MAnagement and Processing of images for Population ImagiNG

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452606 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-260-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Several recent papers underline methodological points that limit the validity of published results in imaging studies in the life sciences and especially the neurosciences (Carp, 2012; Ingre, 2012; Button et al., 2013; Ioannidis, 2014). At least three main points are identified that lead to biased conclusions in research findings: endemic low statistical power and, selective outcome and selective analysis reporting. Because of this, and in view of the lack of replication studies, false discoveries or solutions persist. To overcome the poor reliability of research findings, several actions should be promoted including conducting large cohort studies, data sharing and data reanalysis. The construction of large-scale online databases should be facilitated, as they may contribute to the definition of a “collective mind” (Fox et al., 2014) facilitating open collaborative work or “crowd science” (Franzoni and Sauermann, 2014). Although technology alone cannot change scientists’ practices (Wicherts et al., 2011; Wallis et al., 2013, Poldrack and Gorgolewski 2014; Roche et al. 2014), technical solutions should be identified which support a more “open science” approach. Also, the analysis of the data plays an important role. For the analysis of large datasets, image processing pipelines should be constructed based on the best algorithms available and their performance should be objectively compared to diffuse the more relevant solutions. Also, provenance of processed data should be ensured (MacKenzie-Graham et al., 2008). In population imaging this would mean providing effective tools for data sharing and analysis without increasing the burden on researchers. This subject is the main objective of this research topic (RT), cross-listed between the specialty section “Computer Image Analysis” of Frontiers in ICT and Frontiers in Neuroinformatics. Firstly, it gathers works on innovative solutions for the management of large imaging datasets possibly distributed in various centers. The paper of Danso et al. describes their experience with the integration of neuroimaging data coming from several stroke imaging research projects. They detail how the initial NeuroGrid core metadata schema was gradually extended for capturing all information required for future metaanalysis while ensuring semantic interoperability for future integration with other biomedical ontologies. With a similar preoccupation of interoperability, Shanoir relies on the OntoNeuroLog ontology (Temal et al., 2008; Gibaud et al., 2011; Batrancourt et al., 2015), a semantic model that formally described entities and relations in medical imaging, neuropsychological and behavioral assessment domains. The mechanism of “Study Card” allows to seamlessly populate metadata aligned with the ontology, avoiding fastidious manual entrance and the automatic control of the conformity of imported data with a predefined study protocol. The ambitious objective with the BIOMIST platform is to provide an environment managing the entire cycle of neuroimaging data from acquisition to analysis ensuring full provenance information of any derived data. Interestingly, it is conceived based on the product lifecycle management approach used in industry for managing products (here neuroimaging data) from inception to manufacturing. Shanoir and BIOMIST share in part the same OntoNeuroLog ontology facilitating their interoperability. ArchiMed is a data management system locally integrated for 5 years in a clinical environment. Not restricted to Neuroimaging, ArchiMed deals with multi-modal and multi-organs imaging data with specific considerations for data long-term conservation and confidentiality in accordance with the French legislation. Shanoir and ArchiMed are integrated into FLI-IAM1, the national French IT infrastructure for in vivo imaging.

Keywords

Database --- Infrastructure --- Data --- Workflow --- Neuroimaging --- Image Analysis --- Brain --- MRI

Proceedings of the International School on Magnetic Resonance and Brain Function - XII Workshop

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455546 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-554-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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In the last thirty years, Magnetic Resonance has generated a wide revolution in biomedical research and in medical imaging in general. More recently, the &quot;in vivo&quot; studies of the human brain were extended by new original ways to the dynamic study of function and metabolism of the human brain. The enormous interest in expanding the investigation of the brain is emphasizing the search for new NMR methods capable of extracting information of so-far obscure aspects of the brain function. In fact, many quantitative approaches have been proposed in order to complement the information obtained by functional MRI, and several multimodal and multiparametric approaches have been developed to exploit the information, either functional or structural, made available by the flexible contrast generation typical of MRI, and to combine it with complementary information. The XII workshop of the International School on Magnetic Resonanceand Brain Function, held in Erice between 17 April and 6 May, 2016, was specially devoted to novel approaches aimed at better structural characterization of brain diseases, and at investigating frontiers MRI approaches to better understand the brain function. The papers included in this eBook offer a broad overview of the subjects covered during the Workshop, including applications of multiparametric MRI to neurological diseases, multimodal combination of MRI with electrophysiology, advanced methods for the investigation of brain networks and of brain physiology, and perspectives towards brain state reading.

Investigating the human brainstem with structural and functional MRI

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192472 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-247-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The brainstem is one of the least understood parts of the human brain despite its prime importance for the maintenance of basic vital functions. Owing to its role as a relay station between spinal cord, cerebellum and neocortex, the brainstem contains vital nodes of all functional systems in the central nervous system, including the visual, auditory, gustatory, vestibular, somatic and visceral senses, and the somatomotor as well as autonomic nervous systems. While the brainstem has been extensively studied in animals using invasive methods, human studies remain scarce. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive and widely available method is one possibility to access the brainstem in humans and measure its structure as well as function. The close vicinity of the brainstem to large arteries and ventricles and the small size of the anatomical structures, however, place high demands on imaging as well as data analysis methods. Nevertheless, the field of brainstem-(f)MRI has significantly advanced in the past few years, largely due to the development of several new tools that facilitate studying this critical part of the human brain. Within this scope, the goal of this Research Topic is to compile work representing the state of the art in functional and structural MRI of the human brainstem.

Neural Signal Estimation in the Human Brain

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199235 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-923-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The ultimate goal of functional brain imaging is to provide optimal estimates of the neural signals flowing through the long-range and local pathways mediating all behavioral performance and conscious experience. In functional MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), despite its impressive spatial resolution, this goal has been somewhat undermined by the fact that the fMRI response is essentially a blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal that only indirectly reflects the nearby neural activity. The vast majority of fMRI studies restrict themselves to describing the details of these BOLD signals and deriving non-quantitative inferences about their implications for the underlying neural activity. This Frontiers Research Topic welcomed empirical and theoretical contributions that focus on the explicit relationship of non-invasive brain imaging signals to the causative neural activity. The articles presented within this resulting eBook aim to both highlight the importance and improve the non-invasive estimation of neural signals in the human brain. To achieve this aim, the following issues are targeted:(1) The spatial limitations of source localization when using MEG/EEG.(2) The coupling of the BOLD signal to neural activity. Articles discuss how animal studies are fundamental in increasing our understanding of BOLD fMRI signals, analyze how non-neuronal cell types may contribute to the modulation of cerebral blood flow, and use modeling to improve our understanding of how local field potentials are linked to the BOLD signal.(3) The contribution of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal activity to the BOLD signal.(4) Assessment of neural connectivity through the use of resting state data, computational modeling and functional Diffusion Tensor Imaging (fDTI) approaches.

Learning a non-native language in a naturalistic environment: Insights from behavioural and neuroimaging research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196395 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-639-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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It is largely accepted in the relevant literature that successful learning of one or more non-native languages is affected by a number of factors that are independent of the target language(s) per se; these factors include the age of acquisition (AoA) of the target language(s), the type and amount of formal instruction the learners have received, as well as the amount of language use that the learners demonstrate. Recent experimental evidence suggests that one crucial factor for efficient native-like performance in the non-native language is the amount of naturalistic exposure, or immersion, that the learners receive to that language. This can be broadly defined as the degree to which language learners use their non-native language outside the classroom and for their day-to-day activities, and usually presupposes that the learners live in an environment where their non-native language is exclusively or mostly used. Existing literature has suggested that linguistic immersion can be beneficial for lexical and semantic acquisition in a non-native language, as well as for non-native morphological and syntactic processing. More recent evidence has also suggested that naturalistic learning of a non-native language can also have an impact on the patterns of brain activity underlying language processing, as well as on the structure of brain regions that are involved, expressed as changes in the grey matter structure. This Research Topic brings together studies on the effects of learning and speaking a non-native language in a naturalistic environment. These include more efficient or “native-like” processing in behavioural tasks tapping on language (lexicon, morphology, syntax), as well as changes in the brain structure and function, as revealed by neuroimaging studies.

Cardiovascular Toxicities of Breast Cancer Treatment: Emerging Issues in Cardio-Oncology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195695 Year: Pages: 83 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-569-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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Cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the two most common causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The incidence of both cancer and cardiovascular disease increases with age. With increased life expectancy, the burden of both these diseases will increase substantially in coming years. Patients with CVD share multiple common risk factors and lifestyle behaviors in addition to frequently suffering from multiple comorbid conditions. Tobacco use, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition are all established risk factors of heart disease. Patients with diseases such as breast cancer may develop CVD from treatment, such as use of chemotherapy and RT. Effects on the heart are a potentially significant and serious clinical problem in radiation therapy treatment of breast cancer. Over the course of the past 50 years, there have been great advances in the delivery of RT due to the development of new techniques, beam energy, improvement in imaging modalities, and development of image registration strategies. It is hypothesized that cardiac damage from RT is correlated to the dose absorbed by the heart and differs between left- and right-breast radiotherapy. The damage to cardiac micro- and macro-vasculature is the pathophysiological cause of RT-related heart disease. Given the growing clinical relevance of cardio-oncology, this Frontiers in Oncology Research Topic provides a venue for disseminating focused reviews and cutting edge research in this quickly growing field. We encourage submission of original papers and reviews dealing with cardiac toxicity after breast cancer treatment, motion management to reduce cardiac exposure, imaging to evaluate potential cardiac toxicities and primary prevention of cardiac disease in the breast cancer patient.

Neuroanatomy of Human Brain Development

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451203 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-120-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The human brain is extraordinary complex and yet its origin is a simple tubular structure. Rapid and dramatic structural growth takes place during the fetal and perinatal period. By the time of birth, a repertoire of major cortical, subcortical and white matter structures resembling the adult pattern has emerged, however there are continued maturational changes of the gray matter and white matter throughout childhood and adolescence and into adulthood. The maturation of neuronal structures provides the neuroanatomical basis for the acquisition and refinement of cognitive functions during postnatal development. Histological imaging has been traditionally dominant in understanding neuroanatomy of early brain development and still plays an unparalleled role in this field. Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques including diffusion MRI, as noninvasive tools readily applied to in vivo brains, have become an important complementary approach in revealing the detailed brain anatomy, including the structural connectivity between brain regions. In this research topic, we presented the most recent investigations on understanding the neuroanatomy and connectivity of human brain development using both histology and MRI. Modern advances in mapping normal developmental brain anatomy and connectivity should elucidate many neurodevelopmental disorders, ranging from rare congenital malformations to common disorders such as autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is a prerequisite for better diagnosis and treatment of these currently poorly understood diseases.

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