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Protective Immune Response to Dengue Virus Infection and Vaccines: perspectives from the field to the bench

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195114 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-511-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Dengue is the most important mosquito-transmitted viral disease in humans. Half of the world population is at risk of infection, mostly in tropical and sub-tropical areas. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 50 to 100 million infections occur yearly, with 50,000 to 100,000 deaths related to dengue, mainly in children. Recent estimates show higher numbers, up to three times more, with 390 million estimated dengue infections per year, among which 96 million apparent infections (Bhatt et al. 2013). Initially localized to South-East Asia, dengue virus (DENV) started its spread in Latin America in the 80s. Little is known about DENV spread in Africa, but multiple seroprevalence surveys over several years are now clearly showing endemic areas in East and West Africa (Brady et al. 2013). Finally, due to global warming and intense traveling there is a risk of global spread towards more temperate regions, and both US Key islands (FL) and southern Europe recently faced DENV outbreaks. There are currently no specific treatments or vaccines available. Even though several dengue vaccines are in the pipeline, clear correlates of protection are still lacking. The recent failure of the live-attenuated Sanofi vaccine Phase 2b trial (Sabchareon et al. 2013) and the lack of correlation between clinical protection and in vitro neutralization assays, clearly underlines the necessity to better understand the role of the different components of the immune system in protection against dengue virus infection and the requirement for the development of additional and/or improved predictive assays. The aim of this research topic is to provide novel data, opinions and literature reviews on the best immune correlates of protection and recent advances in the immune response to DENV infection that can allow rapid progress of dengue vaccines. Authors can choose to submit original research papers, reviews or opinions on pre-clinical or clinical observations that will help unify the field, with perspectives from epidemiology, virology, immunology and vaccine developers. This research topic will discuss different aspects of the protective immune response to DENV that can influence vaccine development. It will include a review of epidemiological data generated in the field, which will address spatio-temporal diversity of DENV epidemics, the importance of cross-reactive protection and of the time-interval between infections as a predictor of disease. It will further include a review of the role of both the innate and adaptive immunity in DENV infection control, and discuss the usefulness of new improved animal models in dissecting the role of each immunological compartment, which will help define new correlate of immune protection. New data concerning the DENV structure and anti-dengue antibody structure will address the necessity of improved neutralization assays. The ultimate test to prove vaccine efficacy and study immune correlates of protection in humans before large trials will open up the discussion on human DENV challenges using controlled attenuated viral strains. Finally, the role of vaccines, administered in flavi-immune populations, in the modification of future epidemics will also be approached and will include novel studies on mosquitoes infection thresholds.

Secretion of Cytokines and Chemokines by Innate Immune Cells

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195503 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-550-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The release of cytokines, chemokines, and other immune-modulating mediators released from innate immune cells, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, mast cells, and epithelial cells, is an important event in immunity. Cytokine synthesis and transportation occurs through the canonical protein trafficking pathway associated with endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. How cytokines are released upon their exit from the trans-Golgi network varies enormously between cell types, and in many cells this has not yet been characterized. This issue delves into the plethora of cytokines released by innate immune cells, and where possible, shines light on specific mechanisms that regulate trafficking and release of Golgi-derived vesicles. Each cell type also shows varying degrees of dependency on microtubule organization and actin cytoskeleton remodeling for cytokine secretion. Understanding the mechanisms of cytokine secretion will reveal the inner workings of individual innate immune cell types, and allow identification of critical regulatory steps in cytokine release.

CD4+ T cell differentiation in infection: amendments to the Th1/Th2 axiom

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195657 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-565-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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CD4+ T lymphocytes play an essential role in host defense against bacterial, parasitic and viral infections. During infection, under the influence of intrinsic signals received through peptide-MHC/TCR interactions and extrinsic signals provided by pathogen-conditioned dendritic and other accessory cells, CD4+ T cells proliferate and differentiate into specialized T helper (Th) effectors, which produce distinct sets of cytokines tailored to combat a specific class of microbes. The concept of CD4+ T cell multi-functionality was developed after the seminal discovery of Th1 and Th2 cells nearly 30 years ago. Although the Th1/Th2 paradigm has successfully withstood the test of time, in the past decade additional Th subsets (Th17, Tfh, Th22, Th9) have been identified. Similarly, single cell analyses of cytokines and master transcriptional factors have revealed that, at the population level, CD4+ T cell responses are far more heterogeneous than initially anticipated. While some of the checkpoints in Th cell specification have been identified, recent studies of transcriptional and epigenetic regulation have uncovered a significant flexibility during the course CD4+ T lymphocyte polarization. In addition, Th cells expressing cytokines with counteracting functions, as a measure of self-regulation, display yet another level of diversity. Understanding the mechanisms that control the balance between stability vs. plasticity of Th effectors both at the time of initiation of immune response and during development of CD4 T cell memory is critical for the rational design of better vaccines and new immunotherapeutic strategies. This research topic will cover current views on Th cell development, with a focus on the mechanisms that govern differentiation, function and regulation of effector Th cells in the context of microbial infections.

Dendritic Cell and Macrophage Nomenclature and Classification

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199181 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-918-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) comprises dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes and macrophages (MØs) that together play crucial roles in tissue immunity and homeostasis, but also contribute to a broad spectrum of pathologies. They are thus attractive therapeutic targets for immune therapy. However, the distinction between DCs, monocytes and MØ subpopulations has been a matter of controversy and the current nomenclature has been a confounding factor. DCs are remarkably heterogeneous and consist of multiple subsets traditionally defined by their expression of various surface markers. While markers are important to define various populations of the MPS, they do not specifically define the intrinsic nature of a cell population and do not always segregate a bona fide cell type of relative homogeneity. Markers are redundant, or simply define distinct activation states within one subset rather than independent subpopulations. One example are the steady-state CD11b+ DCs which are often not distinguished from monocytes, monocyte-derived cells, and macrophages due to their overlapping phenotype. Lastly, monocyte fate during inflammation results in cells bearing the phenotypic and functional features of both DCs and MØs significantly adding to the confusion. In fact, depending on the context of the study and the focus of the laboratory, a monocyte-derived cell will be either be called "monocyte-derived DCs" or "macrophages". Because the names we give to cells are often associated with a functional connotation, this is much more than simple semantics. The "name" we give to a population fundamentally changes the perception of its biology and can impact on research design and interpretation. Recent evidence in the ontogeny and transcriptional regulation of DCs and MØs, combined with the identification of DC- and MØ-specific markers has dramatically changed our understanding of their interrelationship in the steady state and inflammation. In steady state, DCs are constantly replaced by circulating blood precursors that arise from committed progenitors in the bone marrow. Similarly, some MØ populations are also constantly replaced by circulating blood monocytes. However, others tissue MØs are derived from embryonic precursors, are seeded before birth and maintain themselves in adults by self-renewal. In inflammation, such differentiation pathways are fundamentally changed and unique monocyte-derived inflammatory cells are generated. Current DC, monocyte and MØ nomenclature does not take into account these new developments and as a consequence is quite confusing. We believe that the field is in need of a fresh view on this topic as well as an upfront debate on DC and MØ nomenclature. Our aim is to bring expert junior and senior scientists to revisit this topic in light of these recent developments. This Research Topic will cover all aspects of DC, monocyte and MØ biology including development, transcriptional regulation, functional specializations, in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues, and in both human and mouse models. Given the central position of DCs, monocytes and MØs in tissue homeostasis, immunity and disease, this topic should be of interest to a large spectrum of the biomedical community.

Molecular Pathogenesis of Pneumococcus

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452781 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-278-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Streptococcus pneumoniae has been for decades the number one bacterial killer of children in the world. Although vaccination with pneumococcal vaccines [PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 (children) or PPSV23 (adults)] has helped decrease the burden of pneumococcal disease (PD), mortality remains high. Therefore, pathogenesis studies are still key toward our understanding of PD and its control. The introduction of pneumococcal vaccines has also created a niche for vaccine-escape clones. Moreover, the rise of multi-drug resistant clones around the world has also posed a serious threat in recent years. The proposed special issue of Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology highlights many of the recent advances that have been made in pneumococcal pathogenesis, colonization and antibiotic resistance by groups in Latino America, Europe, and the USA.

Second hand smoke and COPD: lessons from animal studies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193165 Year: Pages: 91 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-316-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Cigarette smoke exposure is the key initiator of chronic inflammation, alveolar destruction, and the loss of alveolar blood vessels that lead to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which is comprised of emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is the major risk factor for non-smokers to develop emphysema. While the first-hand smoke is directly inhaled by smokers, passive smoking occurs when non-smokers are involuntary exposed to environmental tobacco smoke also known as second hand smoke (SHS). SHS is a mixture of 2 forms of smoke that come from burning tobacco: side stream smoke (smoke that comes from the end of a lit cigarette, pipe, or cigar) and mainstream smoke (smoke that is exhaled by a smoker). These two types of smoke have basically the same composition, however in SHS many toxic components are more concentrated than in first-hand smoke, therefore more hazardous for people’s health. Several pathological events have been implicated in the development of SHS-induced COPD, but many aspects of this pathology remain poorly understood halting the development of new advanced treatments for this detrimental disease. In this respect we have welcomed leading investigators in the field to share their research findings and provide their thoughts regarding the mechanisms of the SHS exposure-induced immune responses and inflammatory mechanisms of lung destruction in SHS-induced COPD and related comorbidities.

A living history of immunology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196982 Year: Pages: 62 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-698-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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In the highly competitive world of biomedical science, often the rush to publish and to be recognized as "first" with a new discovery, concept or method, is lost in the hurly-burly of the moment, as "the maddening crowd" moves on to the next "new thing". One of the great things about immunology today is that it has only become mature as a science within the last half-century, and especially within the past 35 years as a consequence of the revolution of molecular immunology, which has taken place only since 1980. Consequently, most of those who have contributed to our new understanding of how the immune system functions are still alive and well, and still contributing. Thus, "A Living History of Immunology" collates many stories from the investigators who actually performed the experiments that have established the frontiers of immunology. Accordingly, this volume combats "revisionist science", by those who want to alter history by telling the stories a different way than actually happened. In this regard, one of the good things about science vs. other disciplines is that we have the written record of what was done, when it was done and by whom. Even so, we do not have the complete story or narrative of how and why experiments were done, and what made the differences that led to success. This volume captures and chronicles some of these stories from the past fifty years in immunology.

Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health

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ISBN: 9783038978909 / 9783038978916 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-891-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The impact of fat intake on hypercholesterolemia and related atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases has been studied for decades. However, the current evidence base suggests that fatty acids also influences cardiometabolic diseases through other mechanisms including effects on glucose metabolism, body fat distribution, blood pressure, inflammation, and heart rate. Furthermore, studies evaluating single fatty acids have challenged the simplistic view of shared health effects within fatty acid groups categorized by degree of saturation. In addition, investigations of endogenous fatty acid metabolism, including genetic studies of fatty acid metabolizing enzymes, and the identification of novel metabolically derived fatty acids have further increased the complexity of fatty acids’ health impacts. This Special Issue aims to include original research and up-to-date reviews on genetic and dietary modulation of fatty acids, and the role and function of dietary and metabolically derived fatty acids in cardiometabolic health.

Mathematical Modelling in Engineering & Human Behaviour 2018

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ISBN: 9783038978046 / 9783038978053 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-805-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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This book includes papers in cross-disciplinary applications of mathematical modelling: from medicine to linguistics, social problems, and more. Based on cutting-edge research, each chapter is focused on a different problem of modelling human behaviour or engineering problems at different levels. The reader would find this book to be a useful reference in identifying problems of interest in social, medicine and engineering sciences, and in developing mathematical models that could be used to successfully predict behaviours and obtain practical information for specialised practitioners. This book is a must-read for anyone interested in the new developments of applied mathematics in connection with epidemics, medical modelling, social issues, random differential equations and numerical methods.

Tribological Performance of Artificial Joints

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ISBN: 9783039210787 / 9783039210794 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-079-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Joint replacement is a very successful medical treatment. However, the survivorship of the implants could be adversely affected due to the loss of materials in the form of particles or ions as the bearing surfaces articulate against earch other. The consequent tissue and immune response to the wear products, remain one of the key factors of their failure. Tribology has been defined as the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion and all related wear products (e.g., particles, ions, etc.). Over the last few decades, in an attempt to understand and improve joint replacement technology, the tribological performance of several material combinations have been studied experimentally and assessed clinically. In addition, research has focused on the biological effects and long term consequences of wear products. Improvements have been made in manufacturing processes, precision engineering capabilities, device designs and materials properties in order to minimize wear and friction and maximize component longevity in vivo.

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