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Marine Biomolecules

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196616 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-661-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Oceans include the greatest extremes of pressure, temperature and light, and habitats can range from tropical waters to ocean trenches, several kilometers below sea level at high pressure. With its 70% of the surface of our planet marine ecosystem still remains largely unexplored, understudied and underexploited in comparison with terrestrial ecosystems, organisms and bioprocesses. The biological adaptation of marine organisms to a wide range of environmental conditions in the specific environment (temperature, salinity, tides, pressure, radiation, light, etc.) has made them an enormous reservoir of interesting biological material for both basic research and biotechnological improvements. As a consequence marine ecosystem is valued as a source of enzymes and other biomolecules exhibiting new functions and activities to fulfill human needs. Indeed, in recent years it has been recognised as an untapped source of novel enzymes and metabolites even though, with regard to the assignment of precise biological functions to genes, proteins and enzymes, it is still considered as the least developed. Using metagenomics to recover genetic material directly from environmental samples, this biogenetic diversification can be accessed but despite the contributions from metagenomic technologies the new field requires major improvements. A few words on the complexity of marine environments should be added here. This complexity ranges from symbiotic relationships to biology and chemistry of defence mechanisms and from chemoecology of marine invasions up to the strategies found in prokaryotes to adapt to extreme environments. The interdisciplinary study of this complexity will enable researchers to find an arsenal of enzymes and pathways greatly demanded in biotechnological applications. As far as marine enzymes are concerned they may carry novel chemical and stereochemical properties, thus biocatalytically oriented studies (testing of suitable substrates, appropriate checking of reaction conditions, study of stereochemical asset of catalysis) should be performed to appropriately reveal this “chemical biodiversity” which increases interest for these enzymes. Among other biomolecules, polysaccharides are the most abundant renewable biomaterial found on land and in oceans. Their molecular diversity is very interesting; except polysaccharides used traditionally in food and non-food industries, the structure and the functionality of most of them are unknown and unexplored. Brown seaweeds synthesize unique bioactive polysaccharides: laminarans, alginic acids and fucoidans. A wide range of biological activities (anticoagulant, antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammation, etc.) have been attributed to fucoidans and their role with respect to structure-activity relationship is still under debate. In this Research Topic, we wish to centralize and review contributions, idea and comments related to the issues above. In particular results of enzymatic bioprospecting in gross marine environment will be acknowledged along with research for structural characterization and biological function of biomolecules such as marine polysaccharides and all kind of research related to the complexity of bioprocesses in marine environments. Inter- and multi-disciplinary approach to this field is favoured in this Research Topic and could greatly be facilitated by the web and open access nature as well.

Advances and New Perspectives in Marine Biotechnology

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ISBN: 9783038421061 9783038421092 Year: Volume: Volume 1 Pages: 428 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-109-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 10:01:02
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As the Century of Biology begins to bear fruit, through the translation of predictive biological understanding into applications that enhance the human condition and maintain biodiversity, the almost infinite potential of marine biological resources will be unlocked. Although Marine Biotechnology already has delivered products for medicine, food, bioenergy, nanomaterials, and bioremediation, less than 5% of our vast oceanic environment has been explored. Marine Biotechnology is a scientifically and economically expanding enterprise that is poised to harness the enormous but uncharted functional diversity of marine life, with its novel and rich array of biodesigns and biosynthetic capabilities. From this pursuit comes new genes, chemicals, materials, and inspirations for the benefit of industry, nutrition, and medicine, and which enable the sustainable use and management of the world’s oceans. This Special Issue in Marine Drugs highlights the cutting-edge developments in Marine Biotechnology with a collection of papers written by authors who are leading experts in the field, including selected papers from the 10th International Marine Biotechnology Conference (IMBC-2013), the premier meeting in marine biotechnology, which is held under the auspices of the International Marine Biotechnology Association.

Advances and New Perspectives in Marine Biotechnology

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ISBN: 9783038421078 9783038421108 Year: Volume: Volume 2 Pages: 654 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-110-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 10:04:44
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As the Century of Biology begins to bear fruit, through the translation of predictive biological understanding into applications that enhance the human condition and maintain biodiversity, the almost infinite potential of marine biological resources will be unlocked. Although Marine Biotechnology already has delivered products for medicine, food, bioenergy, nanomaterials, and bioremediation, less than 5% of our vast oceanic environment has been explored. Marine Biotechnology is a scientifically and economically expanding enterprise that is poised to harness the enormous but uncharted functional diversity of marine life, with its novel and rich array of biodesigns and biosynthetic capabilities. From this pursuit comes new genes, chemicals, materials, and inspirations for the benefit of industry, nutrition, and medicine, and which enable the sustainable use and management of the world’s oceans. This Special Issue in Marine Drugs highlights the cutting-edge developments in Marine Biotechnology with a collection of papers written by authors who are leading experts in the field, including selected papers from the 10th International Marine Biotechnology Conference (IMBC-2013), the premier meeting in marine biotechnology, which is held under the auspices of the International Marine Biotechnology Association.

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