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The Science of Materials: from Materials Discovered by Chance to Customized Materials

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ISBN: 9782722603387 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Collège de France
Added to DOAB on : 2015-05-20 10:31:46
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Throughout the ages, humans have applied knowledge and know-how to master materials. They have gone from materials encountered by chance available in their environment to customized materials designed to meet multi-criteria specifications. Today, owing particularly to digital modelling on different scales, we are able to design high-performance materials, combining various classes of materials, in controlled geometries and dimensions. These innovation strategies – architectured or bio-inspire...

Miniaturization in Sample Preparation

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ISBN: 9783110410174 9783110427264 Year: Pages: 463 DOI: 10.2478/9783110410174 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2015-04-13 11:01:25
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Miniaturization is a challenge thrown down to analytical chemistry. The replacement of conventional analytical systems by miniaturized alternatives during the last years is noticeable. Specifically, the miniaturization of traditional sample preparation techniques (e.g., solid-phase extraction or solvent extraction) led to the development of environmentally benign analytical methods. This book aims to provide an overview of the challenges and achievements inthe application of the miniaturized sample preparation methods in analytical laboratories. It includes both theoretical and practical aspects of miniaturized sample preparation approaches and hence should be of interest to researchers, students and teachers of analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, environmental sciences and environmental engineering.

Solidification

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ISBN: 9789535139058 9789535139065 9789535140580 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68508 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Almost all processing of technologically important materials includes a process where liquid material is cooled to form a solid, called ""solidification."" In order to form a solid from an undercooled melt, the formation of crystalline nuclei and growth of these nuclei to form a solid are necessary. The process of an atom jumping from the liquid to the solid is a diffusive jump with a driving force. The book Solidification is logically developed through a careful presentation of the relevant theories and models of solidification occurring in a variety of materials. Mathematicians, chemists, physicists, and engineers concerned with melting/freezing phenomena will also find this book to be valuable.

Advances in Glass Science and Technology

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ISBN: 9781789231762 9781789231779 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69580 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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In this book, some recent advances in glass science and technology are collected. In the first part, the structure and crystallization of innovative glass compositions are analysed. In the second part, innovative applications are described from the use of glass in optical devices and lasers to fibres in composites, micropatterned components in sensors and microdevices, beads in building walls and sealing in solid oxide fuel cells.

Phase Change Materials and Their Applications

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ISBN: 9781789235302 9781789235319 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71894 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Today, the application of phase change materials (PCMs) has developed in different industries, including the solar cooling and solar power plants, photovoltaic electricity systems, the space industry, waste heat recovery systems, preservation of food and pharmaceutical products, and domestic hot water. PCMs use the principle of latent heat thermal storage to absorb energy in large quantities when there is a surplus and release it when there is a deficit. This promising technology has already been successfully implemented in many construction projects. The aim of this book is to assist the scientists and to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the properties that characterize the phase change materials from theoretical and experimental perspectives with a focus on their technological applications. The present status and future perspectives of phase change material are discussed.

Graphene Oxide - Applications and Opportunities

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ISBN: 9781789235883 9781789235890 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73080 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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This book aims to introduce the emerging technologies of graphene oxide (GO) in various fields such as industrial, medical, electronics, artificial intelligence, materials-alloys, energy storage devices, optical, physics, mechanical, nanomaterials, and sustainable chemistry. At the current level of development, the properties and binding structure of graphene are important toward the recent applications. The knowledge produced by the graphene oxide could be a much haunting basis for discovering innovative opportunities in the field of emerging trends of research. Future technology expected that the full development will depend only on graphene and its functionalized composite materials. This book highlights the challenges and opportunities associated with GOs. Subject of interest in this book is exploring the opportunities and technologies related to abundant clean energy, pure water, and noble long healthy life.

New Uses of Micro and Nanomaterials

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ISBN: 9781789841732 9781789841749 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73361 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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A fundamental part of modern technology is composed of devices that use special materials as main components. Since the last few decades of the last century and even more recently, a remarkable development has been achieved in new micro- and nanostructured materials with compositional structures and production methods that open unprecedented technological, economic, and ecological perspectives due to high yields, economies of scale, the possibility of reducing weight and size, and the low environmental impact of the equipment that contains them. This book offers a collection of excellent studies that use state-of-the-art methodologies developed by professional researchers from different countries in diverse areas of materials. In this way, this book is particularly useful to academics, scientists, practicing researchers, and postgraduate students whose work relates to the latest nanomaterial technologies.

Electrical and Electronic Properties of Materials

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ISBN: 9781789849295 9781789849301 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73110 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Materials properties, whether microscopic or macroscopic, are of immense interest to the materials scientists, physicists, chemists as well as to engineers. Investigation of such properties, theoretically and experimentally, has been one of the fundamental research directions for many years that has also resulted in the discovery of many novel materials. It is also equally important to correctly model and measure these materials properties. Keeping such interests of research communities in mind, this book has been written on the properties of polyesters, varistor ceramics, and powdered porous compacts and also covers some measurement and parameter extraction methods for dielectric materials. Four contributed chapters and an introductory chapter from the editor explain each class of materials with practical examples.

Fillers - Synthesis, Characterization and Industrial Application

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ISBN: 9781789857917 9781789857924 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.75241 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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Fillers - Synthesis, Characterization and Industrial Application comprises a set of chapters that brings an interdisciplinary perspective to accomplish a more detailed understanding of filler materials for the synthesis and characterization of different industrial applications. This book embraces all the chapters that are concerned with the effect of incorporating different fillers or particulates in fabricated composites. Significant research efforts all around the world are continuing to explore the properties of composite materials. Researchers are collectively focusing their efforts on the use of particulate fillers in composites for miscellaneous applications. This book delivers a comprehensive study associated with the sections of material science, polymer technology, anisotropic elasticity phenomena, fracture mechanics, applied mechanics, material synthesis, mechanical and thermo-mechanical characteristics, tribological behavior, etc.

Emerging Solar Energy Materials

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ISBN: 9781789235821 9781789235838 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71145 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:14

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This book provides the fundamental understanding of the functioning of solar cellsand the materials for the effective utilization of energy resources. The main objective of writing this book is to create a comprehensive and easy-to-understand source of information on the advances in the rapidly growing research on solar cells. Emerging Solar Energy Materials comprises 12 chapters written by the experts in the solar cell field and is organized with the intention to provide a big picture of the latest progress in the solar cell field and at the same time give an in-depth discussion on fundamentals of solar cells for interested audiences. In this book, each part opens with a new author's essay highlighting their work for contribution toward solar energy. Critical, cutting-edge subjects are addressed, including: Photovoltaic device technology and energy applications; Functional solar energy materials; New concept in solar energy; Perovskite solar cells; Dye-sensitized solar cells; Organic solar cells; Thin-film solar cells. The book is written for a large and broad readership including researchers and university graduate students from diverse backgrounds such as chemistry, physics, materials science, and photovoltaic device technology. The book includes enough information on the basics to be used as a textbook undergraduate coursework in engineering and the sciences.

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