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Carbon Fibers

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ISBN: 9783906980690 9783906980706 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-906980-70-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:30:12
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Remarkably, truly novel structures are still being found for materials made of a single element: carbon. Perhaps there is a ‘revolution’ in carbon-only materials. Indeed, recently, two Nobel prizes were awarded for new forms of carbon: for fullerenes in 1996, and for graphene in 2010. And the magic and beauty of carbon nanotubes has held the attention of the scientific world for more than a decade. Yet, there is still more to discover and to explain. In this Special Issue, the focus is on just one area of carbon research: fibers. Even given this relatively narrow focus there is a diversity of research that is both compelling and frustrating. Compelling as it demonstrates the vitality of the subject, and frustrating as it makes it difficult to organize. The topics covered include new fiber fabrication protocols, the mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced polymers, new techniques to study the microstructure of fiber containing composites, new uses of fiber structures, the use of carbon fibers as catalyst supports, and studies regarding the difficulties of machining fiber structures for inclusion in complex structures.

Molecular mechanisms for reprogramming hippocampal development and function by early-life stress

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198061 Year: Pages: 100 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-806-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The early postnatal period is a crucial stage for hippocampal development. During this critical period, the neonatal hippocampus is highly sensitive to the detrimental consequences of adverse environmental factors. Extensive clinical and preclinical evidence has shown that traumatic events early in life have profound and persistent effects on hippocampal function and behavior. This research topic focuses on the acute and lasting effects of early-life stress on various developmental processes in the hippocampus, and aims to uncover the molecules that are responsible for early-life stress-programmed effects and underlie resilience or vulnerability to stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders later in life. We hope the articles in this research topic will provide novel insights and stimulate future studies on the mechanisms of early-life stress and brain development.

Enterotoxins: Microbial Proteins and Host Cell Dysregulation

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ISBN: 9783038421634 9783038421641 Year: Pages: 306 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-164-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-03 11:14:38
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Immunoglobulin therapy in the 21st century: the dark side of the moon

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197033 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-703-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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In the early decades since the introduction in the early '80s of immunoglobulin therapy many studies tried to identify which clinical indications might benefit from the therapy, which treatment’s schedules are effective and safe. It is universally accepted that immunoglobulin therapy is a life-saving treatment in patients with PID. The rise of new indications for further different clinical conditions resulted in a steady increase in demand for immunoglobulins. Currently the consumption of immunoglobulin for PID represents a small fraction of the market. In the recent past we have been observing:1) An increase in the demand for plasma and in the consequent need to increase the number of donors;2) Changes in methods to improve IgG recovery and to increase productivity as a response to growing clinical demand;3) Introduction of immunoglobulin treatments with higher concentration;4) Changes in the timing of administration with an increase in the rate of infusion;5) Introduction of immunoglobulin treatment administered subcutaneously mainly confined initially to patients with PID and later extended to other clinical indications which often require higher volumes of infusion. Doctors following patients with PID were initially alarmed only to a possible risk of shortage. More relevant and less discussed appear the possible consequences of:1) the risk of an improper transfer of information on treatments from a clinical indication to another. In particular, the idea of a mere replacement function in patients with PID might possibly be borrowed from the model of other clinical conditions requiring a replacement such as haemophilia. In PID, immunoglobulin treatment instead is obviously replacing a missing feature. However, other immune alterations are responsible for the large number of PID-associated diseases including inflammatory manifestations and tumors, common causes of morbidity and mortality. The immunomodulatory effects of immunoglobulin administered at replacement dosages on multiple cells and immune system functions are still largely to be checked in in vitro studies and in vivo.2) the changes in the immunoglobulin production and schedules of administration. These should have been assessed in studies of drug surveillance, necessary in order to evaluate on large numbers of what it is initially reported on patients enrolled in the pivotal clinical trials, usually in the absence of most of the main disease-associated clinical conditions affecting pharmacokinetics, efficacy and tolerability. Severe side effects are now more frequently reported. This requires surveillance studies in order to verify the tolerability. Nowadays, personalized health research presents methodologic challenges, since emphasis is placed on the individual response rather than on the population. Even within a universally accepted indication, such as in PID, the identification of prognostic markers should guide the therapeutic intervention.3) the risk of a decrease in the surveillance and monitoring of PID-associated clinical conditions. In fact, self- administration of immunoglobulins administered subcutaneously increased the independence of a number of patients. On the other hand, it led to the reduction in the number of contacts between specialized centers and patients who often require a close monitoring of disease-associated conditions. A wide debate between experts is necessary to afford the new challenge on immunoglobulin usage.

Selected Papers from ASEPFPM2015

ISBN: 9783038423140 9783038423157 Year: Pages: VIII, 162 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-18 12:54:24
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This Special Issue cooperates with the 5th Asian Symposium on Emulsion Polymerization and Functional Polymeric Microspheres (ASEPFPM 2015) (http://asepfpm5.csp.escience.cn). Polymeric microspheres are basic materials for recent progress in environmental science, architecture, biomedicine, electronics, food, cosmetics, etc. While much progress has been made over the past few decades, there are still big challenges for the preparation of functional particles and the verification of preparation mechanisms; there is much room for growth in our ability to provide for high performance in these areas. The general theme of this symposium is to discuss recent advances in both fundamentals and applications, as well as to promote science and industrialization translation.

Habituation mechanisms and their impact on cognitive function

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194629 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-462-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Habituation describes the progressive decrease of the amplitude or frequency of a motor response to repeated sensory stimulation that is not caused by sensory receptor adaptation or motor fatigue. Habituation can occur in different time scales: habituation within a testing session has been termed short-term habituation, whereas habituation across testing sessions has been termed long-term habituation. Generally, the more spaced the stimuli for inducing habituation are presented (i.e. the slower habituation is induced), the longer it seems to take to recover the behavioural response to its initial magnitude. Habituation is opposed by behavioural sensitization, which is thought to be an independent mechanism that leads to an increased behavioural response, especially if the sensory stimulus is annoying or aversive. Habituation provides an important mechanism for filtering sensory information, as it allows filtering out irrelevant stimuli and thereby focussing on important stimuli, a prerequisite for many cognitive tasks. The importance is demonstrated in mental disorders that are associated with disruptions in habituation, e.g. schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. The inability to filter out irrelevant information in patients with these disorders strongly correlates with disruptions in higher cognitive functions, such as in different types of memory and attention. Habituation is also considered to be the most basic form of non-associative implicit learning, and it can be observed throughout the animal kingdom. Based on the importance of habituation for cognitive function and therefore for the survival of an animal, it is assumed that habituation mechanisms are highly conserved across species. On the other hand, there is emerging evidence for a multitude of homo- and heterosynaptic mechanisms underlying habituation, depending on the modality of sensory stimulation, the level of sensory information processing where habituation occurs, and the temporal composition of sensory stimulation. Eric Kandel used the sea hare Aplysia in order to study habituation mechanisms of the gill withdrawal reflex; however, the molecular mechanisms remain largely elusive to date. A multitude of different organisms, behaviours, and experimental approaches have been used since in order to study habituation, but still surprisingly little is known about the underlying mechanisms. New insights also come from an unexpected side: in the recent past, groups that have been studying molecular mechanisms underlying short- and long-term synaptic plasticity phenomenons in different parts of the rodent brain are starting to link these plasticity processes to behavioural habituation. The scope of this Frontier Research Topic is to give an overview over the concept of habituation, different animal and behavioural models used for studying habituation mechanisms, as well as the different synaptic and molecular processes suggested to play a role in behavioural habituation through Original Research Articles, Methods, Hypothesis & Theory Articles, and Reviews.

Tumour Viruses

ISBN: 9783038421511 9783038421528 Year: Pages: 470 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 14:59:05
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Current worldwide estimates suggest that approxiamtely 11% of all cancers are caused by viral infections. At present, there are eight viruses that have a strong association with cancer development namely, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus, human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I, Merkel cell polyomavirus, hepatitis B and C viruses and human immunodeficiency virus. Some of these viruses and associated cancers, such as human papillomavirus and cervical cancer, are well studied and the causal link between infection and cancer development is established. However, the involvement of these known oncogenic viruses in cancer development at other body sites is not well understood and further study of these viruses continues to highlight novel mechanisms of cellular transformation. Other cancer-associated viruses are only recently discovered, such as Merkel cell polyomavirus, and further work is required to formally prove their role in cancer development. In this Special Issue, we seek to explore novel mechanisms of cellular transformation by oncogenic viruses, the role of viral infection in cancer development in understudied body sites and the potential role of novel viral pathogens in cancer development.

Neural Mechanisms of Perceptual Categorization as Precursors to Speech Perception

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451586 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-158-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Perceptual categorization is fundamental to the brain’s remarkable ability to process large amounts of sensory information and efficiently recognize objects including speech. Perceptual categorization is the neural bridge between lower-level sensory and higher-level language processing. A long line of research on the physical properties of the speech signal as determined by the anatomy and physiology of the speech production apparatus has led to descriptions of the acoustic information that is used in speech recognition (e.g., stop consonants place and manner of articulation, voice onset time, aspiration). Recent research has also considered what visual cues are relevant to visual speech recognition (i.e., the visual counter-parts used in lipreading or audiovisual speech perception). Much of the theoretical work on speech perception was done in the twentieth century without the benefit of neuroimaging technologies and models of neural representation. Recent progress in understanding the functional organization of sensory and association cortices based on advances in neuroimaging presents the possibility of achieving a comprehensive and far reaching account of perception in the service of language. At the level of cell assemblies, research in animals and humans suggests that neurons in the temporal cortex are important for encoding biological categories. On the cellular level, different classes of neurons (interneurons and pyramidal neurons) have been suggested to play differential roles in the neural computations underlying auditory and visual categorization. The moment is ripe for a research topic focused on neural mechanisms mediating the emergence of speech representations (including auditory, visual and even somatosensory based forms). Important progress can be achieved by juxtaposing within the same research topic the knowledge that currently exists, the identified lacunae, and the theories that can support future investigations. This research topic provides a snapshot and platform for discussion of current understanding of neural mechanisms underlying the formation of perceptual categories and their relationship to language from a multidisciplinary and multisensory perspective. It includes contributions (reviews, original research, methodological developments) pertaining to the neural substrates, dynamics, and mechanisms underlying perceptual categorization and their interaction with neural processes governing speech perception.

Passive Micromixers

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ISBN: 9783038970071 9783038970088 Year: Pages: VIII, 166 Language: Englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Technology --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-20 17:31:11
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Micro-total analysis systems and lab-on-a-chip platforms are widely used for sample preparation and analysis, drug delivery, and biological and chemical syntheses. A micromixer is an important component in these applications. Rapid and efficient mixing is a challenging task in the design and development of micromixers. The flow in micromixers is laminar, and, thus, the mixing is primarily dominated by diffusion. Recently, diverse techniques have been developed to promote mixing by enlarging the interfacial area between the fluids or by increasing the residential time of fluids in the micromixer. Based on their mixing mechanism, micromixers are classified into two types: active and passive. Passive micromixers are easy to fabricate and generally use geometry modification to cause chaotic advection or lamination to promote the mixing of the fluid samples, unlike active micromixers, which use moving parts or some external agitation/energy for the mixing. Many researchers have studied various geometries to design efficient passive micromixers. Recently, numerical optimization techniques based on computational fluid dynamic analysis have been proven to be efficient tools in the design of micromixers. The current Special Issue covers new mechanisms, design, numerical and/or experimental mixing analysis, and design optimization of various passive micromixers.

Anreizwirkungen von Finanzausgleichssystemen

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Book Series: Finanzwissenschaftliche Schriften ISBN: 9783631608470 Year: Pages: 355 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:35
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Obwohl in fiskalföderalen Systemen Konsens über die Vorteilhaftigkeit der dezentralen Bereitstellung öffentlicher Güter besteht, zeigen sich große Unterschiede bei der Ausgestaltung von Finanzausgleichssystemen. Diese Unterschiede werden hier aus dem Blickwinkel der Anreizwirkungen analysiert. Dabei zeigt sich, dass die Anreizwirkungen wesentlich von der Informationsverteilung zwischen den Akteuren abhängen. Das Buch diskutiert sowohl die «Theorien der ersten Generation» ohne Informationsasymmetrien und unter Annahme eines wohlmeinenden Sozialplaners, als auch die «Theorien der zweiten Generation» mit Informationsasymmetrien und eigennützig handelnden Akteuren. Auf Grundlage dieser Erkenntnisse wird abschließend ein anreizeffizienter Finanzausgleich bei Informationsasymmetrie entworfen.

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