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A dynamic interplay between membranes and the cytoskeleton critical for cell development and signaling

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193233 Year: Pages: 80 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-323-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Various cellular processes underlying plant development and response to environmental cues rely on a dynamic interplay between membranes and the cytoskeleton, e.g. vesicle and organelle trafficking, endocytosis, exocytosis, and signal transduction. In recent years, significant progress in the understanding of such interplay has been achieved and several critical links between membranes and the cytoskeleton have been characterized. As an example, recent work has clarified how auxin promotes the reorganization of cortical actin filaments by the activation of Rho GTPase pathways, and how such reorganization in turn locally modifies endocytosis and/or exocytosis and directs asymmetric distribution of PIN family of auxin transporters. Another recent achievement is the characterization of the Rho- and microtubule-driven mechanism by which the cell wall architecture is established. In particular, the elegant work by Oda and Fukuda (Science 337 p.1333, 2012) provides evidence that secondary wall patterning in xylem vessel primarily relies on two processes: a local activation of the plant Rho GTPase ROP11 and a mutual, MIDD1-mediated, inhibitory interaction between active ROP domains and cortical microtubules. Additional examples include recent genetic evidence that microtubule and actin filament interacting/regulatory proteins, such as MAP65-1 and capping protein, function as transducers of membrane lipid signaling into changes in cytoskeleton dynamics and organization. This Research Topic aims at collecting a comprehensive set of articles dealing with cellular processes involving membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. Its scope extends beyond the specific fields defined by the above examples and includes intracellular trafficking, host-pathogen interactions, response to biotic and abiotic stresses and hormonal regulation of growth. We hope that this Research Topic will also highlight critical questions that need to be addressed in the future. We welcomed Original Research Articles, Technical/Methodological Advances (e.g. analysis of cytoskeleton dynamics close to membranes), Reviews and Mini Reviews that can expand our understanding of how and why membranes and the cytoskeleton interact.

The regulated secretory pathway in neuroendocrine cells

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192465 Year: Pages: 157 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-246-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General) --- Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The regulated secretory pathway is a hallmark of neuroendocrine cells. This process comprises many sequential steps, which include ER-associated protein synthesis, post-translational modification of proteins in the Golgi complex, sorting and packing of secretory proteins into carrier granules, cytoskeleton-based granule transport towards the plasma membrane and tethering, docking and fusion of granules with specialized releasing zones. Each stage is subjected to a rigorous regulation by a plethora of factors that function in a spatially and temporarily coordinated fashion. Much effort has been devoted to characterize the precise role of the regulatory proteins participating in the different steps of this process and to identify new factors in order to obtain a unifying picture of the secretory pathway. In spite of this and given the enormous complexity of the process, certain stages are not fully understood yet and many players remain to be identified. The aim of this Research Topic is to gather review articles and original research papers on the molecular mechanisms that govern and ensure the correct release of neuropeptides.

Molecular Organization of Membranes: Where Biology Meets Biophysics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454099 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-409-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Biological membranes protect cells and organelles from the surrounding environment, but serve also as organising platforms for physiological processes such as cell signalling. The hydrophobic core of membranes is composed of lipids and proteins influencing each other. Local membrane composition and properties define its molecular organisation and, in this way, regulate the function of all associated molecules. Therefore, studying interactions of components, biophysical properties and overall membrane dynamics provides essential information on its function in the context of cell activities. Such knowledge can contribute to biomedical fields such as pharmacology, immunology, neurobiology and many others. The goal of the Research Topic entitled ‘Molecular organisation of membranes: where biology meets biophysics’ was to provide a comprehensive platform for publishing articles, reviews and opinions focused on membrane organisation and the forces behind its heterogeneous and dynamic structure. We collected 11 works which cover topics as diverse as general membrane organisation models, membrane trafficking and signalling regulation, biogenesis of caveolae, protein-lipid interactions and the importance of membrane-associated tetraspanins networks. The prevalent theme was the existence of membrane nanodomains. To this point, new emerging technologies are presented which own the power to bring a novel insight on how membrane nanodomains are formed and maintained and what is their function. We believe that the collection of works in this Research Topic brings forward some important questions which will stimulate further research in this difficult but exciting field.

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