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Crosstalk between the osteogenic and neurogenic stem cell niches: how far are they from each other?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197774 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-777-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Abstract

Somatic stem cells reside in definite compartments, known as “niches”, within developed organs and tissues, being able to renew themselves, differentiate and ensure tissue maintenance and repair. In contrast with the original dogmatic distinction between renewing and non-renewing tissues, somatic stem cells have been found in almost every human organ, including brain and heart. The adult bone marrow, in particular, houses a complex multifunctional niche comprising hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), that intensely interact. HSCs represent the common precursors of all mature blood cells. MSCs are instead able to differentiate along multiple mesodermal lineages and are believed to represent the key somatic stem cell within the skeletogenic niche, being conceptually able to produce any tissue included within a mature skeletal segment (bone, cartilage, blood vessels, adipose tissue, and supporting connective stroma). Despite this high plasticity, the claim that MSCs could be capable of transdifferentiation along non-mesodermal lineages, including neurons, has been strongly argued. Adult osteogenic and neurogenic niches display wide differences: embryo origin, microenvironment, progenitors’ lifespan, lineages of supporting cells. Although similar pathways may be involved, it is hard to believe that the osteogenic and neurogenic lineages can share functional features. The outbreaking research achievements in the field of regenerative medicine, along with the pressing need for effective innovative tools for the treatment of neurodegeneration and neurologic disorders, have been forcing experimental clinical applications, which, despite their scientific weakness, have recently stimulated the public opinion. Based on this contemporary background, this Research Topic wish to provide an in-depth revision of the state of the art on relevant scientific milestones addressing the differences and possible interconnections and overlaps, between the osteogenic and the neurogenic niches. Dissertations on both basic research and clinical aspects, along with ethical and regulatory issues on the use of somatic stem cells for in vivo transplantation, have been covered.

In Search of In Vivo MSC

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452354 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-235-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Smart Nanovesicles for Drug Targeting and Delivery

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ISBN: 9783038978947 / 9783038978954 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-895-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Nanovesicles are highly-promising systems for the delivery and/or targeting of drugs, biomolecules and contrast agents. Despite the fact that initial studies in this area were performed on phospholipid vesicles, there is an ever-increasing interest in the use of other molecules to obtain smart vesicular carriers focusing on strategies for targeted delivery. These systems can be obtained using newly synthesized smart molecules, or by intelligent design of opportune carriers to achieve specific delivery to the site of action.

Stem Cell and Biologic Scaffold Engineering

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ISBN: 9783039214976 / 9783039214983 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-498-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving research field which effectively combines stem cells and biologic scaffolds in order to replace damaged tissues. Biologic scaffolds can be produced through the removal of resident cellular populations using several tissue engineering approaches, such as the decellularization method. Indeed, the decellularization method aims to develop a cell-free biologic scaffold while keeping the extracellular matrix (ECM) intact. Furthermore, biologic scaffolds have been investigated for their in vitro potential for whole organ development. Currently, clinical products composed of decellularized matrices, such as pericardium, urinary bladder, small intestine, heart valves, nerve conduits, trachea, and vessels, are being evaluated for use in human clinical trials. Tissue engineering strategies require the interaction of biologic scaffolds with cellular populations. Among them, stem cells are characterized by unlimited cell division, self-renewal, and differentiation potential, distinguishing themselves as a frontline source for the repopulation of decellularized matrices and scaffolds. Under this scheme, stem cells can be isolated from patients, expanded under good manufacturing practices (GMPs), used for the repopulation of biologic scaffolds and, finally, returned to the patient. The interaction between scaffolds and stem cells is thought to be crucial for their infiltration, adhesion, and differentiation into specific cell types. In addition, biomedical devices such as bioreactors contribute to the uniform repopulation of scaffolds. Until now, remarkable efforts have been made by the scientific society in order to establish the proper repopulation conditions of decellularized matrices and scaffolds. However, parameters such as stem cell number, in vitro cultivation conditions, and specific growth media composition need further evaluation. The ultimate goal is the development of “artificial” tissues similar to native ones, which is achieved by properly combining stem cells and biologic scaffolds and thus bringing them one step closer to personalized medicine. The original research articles and comprehensive reviews in this Special Issue deal with the use of stem cells and biologic scaffolds that utilize state-of-the-art tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches.

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