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La métallurgie

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ISBN: 9782759805389 Year: Language: French
Publisher: EDP SCIENCES
Subject: Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2014-07-31 10:43:57
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Si la tendance au regroupement des industries métallurgiques en pôles de taille mondiale paraît inéluctable, il faut tout faire pour que cette évolution n'entraîne pas un affaissement de la France dans ce domaine clé. En effet, si les grands acteurs mondiaux de la Métallurgie ne peuvent plus s'appuyer,comme encore récemment, sur une recherche et un enseignement publics français forts, l'ensemble de notre système s'asséchera et migrera ailleurs. Qui plus est, la perte de substance ira bien au-delà de la R&D, frappant en particulier le tissu de nos PMI/PME.L'Académie des technologies et l'Académie des sciences présentent ici une analyse de la Métallurgie française, établie par un groupe d'experts animé par André Pineau, de l'Académie des technologies, et Yves Quéré, de l'Académie des sciences.Cet ouvrage synthétique, complété par des annexes numérisées, décrit en premier lieu la Métallurgie comme science, en tant que telle, en lien fort avec l'ingénierie, ou génie métallurgique. Il établit ensuite un diagnostic de la situation pour les divers grands secteurs industriels ainsi que pour la recherche et l'enseignement.L'ambition est ici de montrer que la Métallurgie constitue une discipline scientifique à part entière, présente dans des champs innombrables de l'industrie, où elle est source de progrès et réservoir d'emplois ; et de rappeler qu'il faut du temps pour construire des compétences indispensables, tant scientifi ques que techniques, qu'un rien suffi t à détruire. Le rapport montre également que la Métallurgie a perdu, en France, une grande part de sa substance, en raison à la fois de multiples réorganisations industrielles récentes et d'un désengagement du monde académique, largement dû aux effets de mode. C'est pourquoi des mesures urgentes, dans l'enseignement, la recherche universitaire et industrielle, l'information du public, la sensibilisation des décideurs et des acteurs… doivent être impérativement prises.Devant la gravité des évolutions recensées, qui rejaillissent notamment sur les emplois, les compétences, la R&D…, les deux académies proposent aux décideurs, publics et privés, une stratégie déclinée en une série de recommandations : dans chaque domaine est décrit l'état actuel et sont proposées des pistes de développement scientifi que et appliqué. Perdre une position de pôle dans ces domaines est dangereux ; en prendre une de leader est un défi à relever. Nous sommes actuellement à ce tournant et, en cela, nous sommes sans doute condamnés à l'excellence.

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Metallurgy

Entdeckung einer metallurgischen Industrie am Fusse des Hochhimalajas

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ISBN: 9783952403808 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 70 DOI: 10.19218/3906897035 Language: German
Publisher: LIBRUM Publishers & Editors LLC
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy --- Archaeology --- Ethnology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-16 16:47:49
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Während der archäologischen Grabungskampagnen der Universität Basel von 2009 – 2010 auf dem Drapham-Dzong in Bhutan, kamen innerhalb der mächtigen Klosterburg aus dem 15. oder 16. Jh. AD Eisenschlackenfragmente zum Vorschein. Zudem fand sich im Bambusdschungel des nahegelegenen Weilers Nag Lhakhang ein Verhüttungsplatz, eine grosse Schlackenhalde und eine Plattform, die möglicherweise als Köhlerplatz angesprochen werden könnte. Es stellte sich die Frage, ob die Eisenverhüttung in Zusammenhang mit dem Reichtum der Burg stand.

Les Scories de forge du Pays dogon (Mali) Entre ethnoarchéologie, archéologie expérimentale et archéométrie

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ISBN: 9783952454299 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 209 DOI: 10.19218/3952454299 Language: French
Publisher: LIBRUM Publishers & Editors LLC
Subject: Archaeology --- Mining and Metallurgy --- Ethnology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-16 16:41:15
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Slide 1Les Scories de forge du Pays dogonLes Scories de forge du Pays dogon (Mali)Entre ethnoarchéologie, archéologie expérimentale et archéométrieCet ouvrage est le résultat d’une thèse de doctorat menée entre le Pays dogon au Mali, et l’université de Fribourg en Suisse, entre fin 2007 et début 2014. Le point central de cette recherche concerne une classe de mobilier archéologique que sont les scories de forge, déchets métallurgiques qui se forment au fond du foyer de forge au cours du travail traditionnel d’objets en fer. Les études qui leur sont consacrées montrent que ces matériaux montrent une incroyable variabilité, qui témoigne de l’immense diversité des travaux de forge. Les recherches actuelles cherchent ainsi naturellement à établir un lien entre les scories, mises au jour par les archéologues, et les activités de forge passées. L’originalité de cette recherche est le développement d’une démarche de travail, au croisement de l’ethnoarchéologie, l’archéologie expérimentale et l’archéométrie. Ce travail a comporté une phase de terrain au Pays dogon (Mali), où forgerons et traditions métallurgiques sont encore préservés. Cette recherche de terrain a donné lieu à des expérimentations dirigées de travaux de forge, durant lesquels différents paramètres sont contrôlés. Le travail de laboratoire a permis de mettre en évidence les caractéristiques intrinsèques des scories. Toutes ces données mettent en lumière des groupes distincts de scories de forge, et constituent un référentiel unique. Raphaëlle Soulignac propose différents scenarii de modalités de formation des scories dans le foyer, en lien avec les travaux qui les ont produits. Ce travail permet ainsi d’enrichir nos connaissances sur les gestes, les pratiques des forgerons et les déchets de forgeage, en mettant en avant un patrimoine important de nos sociétés anciennes.

Creep

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ISBN: 9789535137245 9789535137252 9789535140528 Year: Pages: 268 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68393 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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This book contains 12 chapters with original and innovative research studies in the issues related to the broadly defined creep effect, which concerns not only the area of construction materials but also natural phenomena. The emphasis on the discussion of a new trend of experimental creep testing, which binds the classic creep methods to seek the correlation of parameters obtained in tests, deserves particular attention. This book aims to provide the readers, including, but not limited to, students and doctoral students and also the research personnel and engineers involved in the operation of equipment and structural components as well as specialists in high-temperature creep-resisting materials, with a comprehensive review of new trends in the field of creep-exposed materials and their research methodology. The chapters of this book were developed by respected and well-known researchers from different countries.

Metallurgy, Ballistics and Epistemic Instruments: The Nova scientia of Nicolò Tartaglia – A New Edition

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Book Series: Sources 6: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783844252583 Year: Pages: 360 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 12:09:23
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In 1537, Nicolò Tartaglia (1500–1557), a mathematician from Brescia, published "Nova scientia." It was this work that led to the foundation of the modern science of ballistics. Tartaglia’s intention was to create a purely mathematical science based on axioms, which was fundamental to the entire subject of mechanics, starting with a limited number of principles and arriving at a series of propositions through a rigid procedure of deduction.Nevertheless, as Tartaglia himself states, his motive was fundamentally practical and connected to the activities of the sixteenth-century bombardier. A new edition of Nicolò Tartaglia’s "Nova scientia," based on the 1558 print run of the second enlarged edition (1550), shows how the emergence of theoretical ballistics was a consequence of the technological innovations that took place in the frame of the practice of iron casting at the turn from the fifteenth to the sixteenth century.

Magnesium Alloys - Design, Processing and Properties

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ISBN: 9789533075204 Year: Pages: 540 DOI: 10.5772/560 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Scientists and engineers for decades searched to utilize magnesium, known of its low density, for light-weighting in many industrial sectors. This book provides a broad review of recent global developments in theory and practice of modern magnesium alloys. It covers fundamental aspects of alloy strengthening, recrystallization, details of microstructure and a unique role of grain refinement. The theory is linked with elements of alloy design and specific properties, including fatigue and creep resistance. Also technologies of alloy formation and processing, such as sheet rolling, semi-solid forming, welding and joining are considered. An opportunity of creation the metal matrix composite based on magnesium matrix is described along with carbon nanotubes as an effective reinforcement. A mixture of science and technology makes this book very useful for professionals from academia and industry.

Magnesium Alloys - Corrosion and Surface Treatments

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ISBN: 9789533079721 Year: Pages: 358 DOI: 10.5772/1427 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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A resistance of magnesium alloys to surface degradation is paramount for their applications in automotive, aerospace, consumer electronics and general-purpose markets. An emphasis of this book is on oxidation, corrosion and surface modifications, designed to enhance the alloy surface stability. It covers a nature of oxides grown at elevated temperatures and oxidation characteristics of selected alloys along with elements of general and electrochemical corrosion. Medical applications are considered that explore bio-compatibility of magnesium alloys. Also techniques of surface modifications, designed to improve not only corrosion resistance but also corrosion fatigue, wear and other behaviors, are described. The book represents a valuable resource for scientists and engineers from academia and industry.

Developments in Corrosion Protection

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ISBN: 9789535112235 Year: Pages: 710 DOI: 10.5772/57010 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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One of the first thing that comes to your mind after hearing the term “corrosion” is corrosion of a metal. Corrosion is a basically harmful phenomenon, but it can be useful in some cases. For instance, environment’s pollution with corrosion products and damage to the performance of a system are among its harmful effects, whereas electric energy generation in a battery and cathodic protection of many structures are among its advantages. However, these advantages are almost nothing as compared to the costs and effects imposed by its detrimental influences. The enormous costs of this phenomenon can be better understand through studying the published statistics on direct and indirect corrosion damages on economy of governments. The direct cost of corrosion is near 3 % of the gross domestic product (GDP) of USA. Considering this huge cost, it is necessary to develop and expand the corrosion science and its protection technologies.

Strontium Aluminate - Cement Fundamentals, Manufacturing, Hydration, Setting Behaviour and Applications

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ISBN: 9789535115915 Year: Pages: 352 DOI: 10.5772/57363 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Strontium aluminate cement is special inorganic cement with the properties which make it favorable for various special applications such as refractory products, macro defect free (MDF) composites, blended cements and expansive cements for high temperature applications. There is an immense number of possible combinations which can be made to prepare blended and multicomponent cements and to investigate the influence of substitutions on the properties of strontium aluminate. Divided into ten sections, this book provides the latest research achievements in many aspects of this binder. The manufacturing, the hydration process, the setting behavior and the properties are described. The book contains many original and firstly published experimental research results obtained during writing. Currently there is no comprehensive work on this topic in literature. From this point of view, the book is a pilot work on this topic and should attract the attention of researchers and bring further progress of this topic.

Two-dimensional Materials - Synthesis, Characterization and Potential Applications

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ISBN: 9789535125549 9789535125556 9789535141860 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.5772/64760 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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There are only a few discoveries and new technologies in materials science that have the potential to dramatically alter and revolutionize our material world. Discovery of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the thinnest form of materials to ever occur in nature, is one of them. After isolation of graphene from graphite in 2004, a whole other class of atomically thin materials, dominated by surface effects and showing completely unexpected and extraordinary properties, has been created. This book provides a comprehensive view and state-of-the-art knowledge about 2D materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) and so on. It consists of 11 chapters contributed by a team of experts in this exciting field and provides latest synthesis techniques of 2D materials, characterization and their potential applications in energy conservation, electronics, optoelectronics and biotechnology.

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