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Scientometrics

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ISBN: 9781789233063 9781789233070 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.72488 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Technological change is one of the greatest issues in the modern world. As the world faces societal challenges, e.g., climate challenges, aging problem, and energy security, technology will contribute to new or better solutions for those problems. New technologies take time to develop and mature; moreover, they tend to be born in the gaps of multiple technology fields; therefore, early detection of emerging technological concepts across multiple disciplines will be a very important issue. Our goal seeks to develop automated methods that aid in the systematic, continuous, and comprehensive assessment of technological emergence using one of the major foresight exercises, scientometrics. There is now a huge flood of scientific and technical information, especially scientific publications and patent information. Using the information patterns of emergence for technological concepts has been discovered and theories of technical emergence have been also developed in several years. We have been developing visualization tools in which thousands of technical areas have been interacted with each other and evolved in time. Several indicators of technical emergence have been improved by universities, international organizations, and funding agencies. This book intends to provide readers with a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art in scientometrics that focuses on the systematic, continuous, and comprehensive assessment of technological emergence.

Temperature Sensing

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ISBN: 9781789235029 9781789235036 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71461 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Temperature is the most often-measured environmental quantity and scientists are continuously improving ways of sensing it. To present their work in the field of temperature sensing, researchers from distant parts of the world have joined their efforts and contributed their ideas according to their interest and engagement. Their articles will give you the opportunity to understand concepts and uses of fiber-optic sensing technology. The optical fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for temperature sensing is presented, as well as the optical fiber-distributed temperature sensor and fiber Bragg grating-based sensor. You can learn about tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and its various industrial applications. Last but not least, cutting temperature measurements during the machining of aluminum alloys provides us with an insight into the correlation between cutting conditions, mechanical strength of the aluminum alloy, and the cutting temperature measured using the tool-workpiece thermocouple system. The editors hope that the presented contributions will allow both professionals and readers not involved in the immediate field to understand and enjoy the topic.

New Trends and Developments in Metrology

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ISBN: 9789535124771 9789535124788 9789535141952 Year: Pages: 292 DOI: 10.5772/59388 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Investigating the incessant technology growth and the even higher complexity of engineering systems, one of the crucial requirements to confidently steer both scientific and industrial challenges is to identify an appropriate measurement approach. A general process can be considered effective and under control if the following elements are consciously and cyclically managed: numeric target, adequate tools, output analysis, and corrective actions. The role of metrology is to rigorously harmonize this virtuous circle, providing guidance in terms of instruments, standards, and techniques to improve the robustness and the accuracy of the results. This book is designed to offer an interdisciplinary experience into the science of measurement, not only covering high-level measurement strategies but also supplying analytical details and experimental setups.

Product/Process Fingerprint in Micro Manufacturing

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ISBN: 9783039210343 / 9783039210350 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-035-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The continuous miniaturization of products and the growing complexity of their embedded multifunctionalities necessitates continuous research and development efforts regarding micro components and related micro manufacturing technologies. Highly miniaturized systems, manufactured using a wide variety of materials, have found application in key technological fields, such as healthcare devices, micro implants, mobility, communications, optics, and micro electromechanical systems. Innovations required for the high-precision manufacturing of micro components can specifically be achieved through optimizations using post-process (i.e., offline) and in-process (i.e., online) metrology of both process input and output parameters, as well as geometrical features of the produced micro parts. However, it is of critical importance to reduce the metrology and optimization efforts, since process and product quality control can represent a significant portion of the total production time in micro manufacturing. To solve this fundamental challenge, research efforts have been undertaken in order to define, investigate, implement, and validate the so-called “product/process manufacturing fingerprint” concept. The “product manufacturing fingerprint” concept refers to those unique dimensional outcomes (e.g., surface topography, form error, critical dimensions, etc.) on the produced component that, if kept under control and within specifications, ensure that the entire micro component complies to its specifications. The “process manufacturing fingerprint” is a specific process parameter or feature to be monitored and controlled, in order to maintain the manufacture of products within the specified tolerances. By integrating both product and process manufacturing fingerprint concepts, the metrology and optimization efforts are highly reduced. Therefore, the quality of the micro products increases, with an obvious improvement in production yield. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on novel methodological developments and applications in micro- and sub-micro-scale manufacturing, process monitoring and control, as well as micro and sub-micro product quality assurance. Focus will be on micro manufacturing process chains and their micro product/process fingerprint, towards full process optimization and zero-defect micro manufacturing.

Keywords

micro-injection moulding --- quality assurance --- process monitoring --- micro metrology --- positioning platform --- Halbach linear motor --- commercial control hardware --- diffractive optics --- gratings --- microfabrication --- computer holography --- manufacturing signature --- process fingerprint --- Fresnel lenses --- injection compression molding --- injection molding --- micro structures replication --- confocal microscopy --- optical quality control --- uncertainty budget --- optimization --- precision injection molding --- quality control --- process monitoring --- product fingerprint --- process fingerprint --- electrical discharge machining --- electrical discharge machining (EDM) --- surface roughness --- surface integrity --- optimization --- desirability function --- satellite drop --- electrohydrodynamic jet printing --- charge relaxation time --- laser ablation --- superhydrophobic surface --- process fingerprint --- product fingerprint --- surface morphology --- artificial compound eye --- multi-spectral imaging --- lithography --- spectral splitting --- plasma-electrolytic polishing --- PeP --- surface modification --- finishing --- electro chemical machining --- ECM --- Electro sinter forging --- resistance sintering --- electrical current --- fingerprints --- electrical discharge machining --- micro drilling --- process monitoring --- quality control --- electrochemical machining (ECM) --- process control --- current monitoring --- current density --- surface roughness --- inline metrology --- haptic actuator --- impact analysis --- high strain rate effect --- damping --- 2-step analysis --- micro-grinding --- bioceramics --- materials characterisation --- dental implant --- microinjection moulding --- process fingerprints --- flow length --- quality assurance --- n/a

Emergent Quantum Mechanics. David Bohm Centennial Perspectives

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038976165 Year: Pages: 544 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-617-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Emergent quantum mechanics explores the possibility of an ontology for quantum mechanics. The resurgence of interest in ""deeper-level"" theories for quantum phenomena challenges the standard, textbook interpretation. The book presents expert views that critically evaluate the significance—for 21st century physics—of ontological quantum mechanics, an approach that David Bohm helped pioneer. The possibility of a deterministic quantum theory was first introduced with the original de Broglie-Bohm theory, which has also been developed as Bohmian mechanics. The wide range of perspectives that were contributed to this book on the occasion of David Bohm’s centennial celebration provide ample evidence for the physical consistency of ontological quantum mechanics. The book addresses deeper-level questions such as the following: Is reality intrinsically random or fundamentally interconnected? Is the universe local or nonlocal? Might a radically new conception of reality include a form of quantum causality or quantum ontology? What is the role of the experimenter agent? As the book demonstrates, the advancement of ‘quantum ontology’—as a scientific concept—marks a clear break with classical reality. The search for quantum reality entails unconventional causal structures and non-classical ontology, which can be fully consistent with the known record of quantum observations in the laboratory.

Keywords

quantum foundations --- nonlocality --- retrocausality --- Bell’s theorem --- Bohmian mechanics --- quantum theory --- surrealistic trajectories --- Bell inequality --- quantum mechanics --- generalized Lagrangian paths --- covariant quantum gravity --- emergent space-time --- Gaussian-like solutions --- entropy and time evolution --- resonances in quantum systems --- the Friedrichs model --- complex entropy. --- Bell’s theorem --- the causal arrow of time --- retrocausality --- superdeterminism --- toy-models --- quantum ontology --- sub-quantum dynamics --- micro-constituents --- emergent space-time --- emergent quantum gravity --- entropic gravity --- black hole thermodynamics --- Stern-Gerlach --- trajectories --- spin --- Bell theorem --- fractal geometry --- p-adic metric --- singular limit --- gravity --- conspiracy --- free will --- number theory --- quantum potential --- Feynman paths --- weak values --- Bohm theory --- no-hidden-variables theorems --- observables --- measurement problem --- Bohmian mechanics --- primitive ontology --- Retrocausation --- weak values --- Stochastic Electrodynamics --- quantum mechanics --- decoherence --- interpretations --- pilot-wave theory --- Bohmian mechanics --- Born rule statistics --- measurement problem --- quantum thermodynamics --- strong coupling --- operator thermodynamic functions --- quantum theory --- de Broglie–Bohm theory --- contextuality --- atom-surface scattering --- bohmian mechanics --- matter-wave optics --- diffraction --- vortical dynamics --- Schrödinger equation --- de Broglie–Bohm theory --- nonequilibrium thermodynamics --- zero-point field --- de Broglie–Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics --- pilot wave --- interior-boundary condition --- ultraviolet divergence --- quantum field theory --- Aharonov–Bohm effect --- physical ontology --- nomology --- interpretation --- gauge freedom --- Canonical Presentation --- relational space --- relational interpretation of quantum mechanics --- measurement problem --- non-locality --- discrete calculus --- iterant --- commutator --- diffusion constant --- Levi-Civita connection --- curvature tensor --- constraints --- Kilmister equation --- Bianchi identity --- stochastic differential equations --- Monte Carlo simulations --- Burgers equation --- Langevin equation --- fractional velocity --- interpretations of quantum mechanics --- David Bohm --- mind–body problem --- quantum holism --- fundamental irreversibility --- space-time fluctuations --- spontaneous state reduction --- Poincaré recurrence --- symplectic camel --- quantum mechanics --- Hamiltonian --- molecule interference --- matter-waves --- metrology --- magnetic deflectometry --- photochemistry --- past of the photon --- Mach–Zehnder interferometer --- Dove prism --- photon trajectory --- weak measurement --- transition probability amplitude --- atomic metastable states --- Bell’s theorem --- Bohmian mechanics --- nonlocality --- many interacting worlds --- wavefunction nodes --- bouncing oil droplets --- stochastic quantum dynamics --- de Broglie–Bohm theory --- quantum non-equilibrium --- H-theorem --- ergodicity --- ontological quantum mechanics --- objective non-signaling constraint --- quantum inaccessibility --- epistemic agent --- emergent quantum state --- self-referential dynamics --- dynamical chaos --- computational irreducibility --- undecidable dynamics --- Turing incomputability --- quantum ontology --- nonlocality --- time-symmetry --- retrocausality --- quantum causality --- conscious agent --- emergent quantum mechanics --- Bohmian mechanics --- de Broglie-Bohm theory

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