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Microstructural stability of nanostructured fcc metals during cyclic deformation and fatigue

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783866449183 Year: Volume: 9 Pages: XIV, 190 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000030072 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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Nanostructured metals with maximal grain or twin sizes of less than 100 nm have advanced properties like increased strength.As beneficial as these microstructures can be for the strength of materials, they are not infinitely stable. During mechanical loading these metals tend to coarsen and lose their beneficial structure. Besides electron microscopic analysis of fatigued samples, in situ cycling tests were conducted in order to observe structural degradation during mechanical loading.

Molecular Organization of Membranes: Where Biology Meets Biophysics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454099 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-409-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Biological membranes protect cells and organelles from the surrounding environment, but serve also as organising platforms for physiological processes such as cell signalling. The hydrophobic core of membranes is composed of lipids and proteins influencing each other. Local membrane composition and properties define its molecular organisation and, in this way, regulate the function of all associated molecules. Therefore, studying interactions of components, biophysical properties and overall membrane dynamics provides essential information on its function in the context of cell activities. Such knowledge can contribute to biomedical fields such as pharmacology, immunology, neurobiology and many others. The goal of the Research Topic entitled ‘Molecular organisation of membranes: where biology meets biophysics’ was to provide a comprehensive platform for publishing articles, reviews and opinions focused on membrane organisation and the forces behind its heterogeneous and dynamic structure. We collected 11 works which cover topics as diverse as general membrane organisation models, membrane trafficking and signalling regulation, biogenesis of caveolae, protein-lipid interactions and the importance of membrane-associated tetraspanins networks. The prevalent theme was the existence of membrane nanodomains. To this point, new emerging technologies are presented which own the power to bring a novel insight on how membrane nanodomains are formed and maintained and what is their function. We believe that the collection of works in this Research Topic brings forward some important questions which will stimulate further research in this difficult but exciting field.

Entwicklung eines Röntgenmikroskops für Photonenenergien von 15 keV bis 30 keV

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Book Series: Schriften des Instituts für Mikrostrukturtechnik am Karlsruher Institut für Technologie / Hrsg.: Institut für Mikrostrukturtechnik ISSN: 18695183 ISBN: 9783731502630 Year: Volume: 26 Pages: IX, 126 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000043064 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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In many research areas X-rays are used for analysis. In X-ray full field microscopy a high resolution is achievable independent of the source properties by using imaging lenses. With an objective lens with 100 mm focal length a theoretical resolution of 60nm is achievable at 30 keV. In Experiments a resolution of 200 nm for a field of view of 80 µm

Optically Induced Nanostructures. Biomedical and Technical Applications

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ISBN: 9783110354324 9783110383508 Year: Pages: xl, 329 DOI: 10.1515/9783110354324 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Optics and Lights --- Electricity
Added to DOAB on : 2015-06-03 15:22:51
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Nanostructuring of materials is a task at the heart of many modern disciplines in mechanical engineering, as well as optics, electronics, and the life sciences. This book includes an introduction to the relevant nonlinear optical processes associated with very short laser pulses for the generation of structures far below the classical optical diffraction limit of about 200 nanometers as well as coverage of state-of-the-art technical and biomedical applications. These applications include silicon and glass wafer processing, production of nanowires, laser transfection and cell reprogramming, optical cleaning, surface treatments of implants, nanowires, 3D nanoprinting, STED lithography, friction modification, and integrated optics.The book highlights also the use of modern femtosecond laser microscopes and nanoscopes as novel nanoprocessing tools.

Experimental Investigations of Deformation Pathways in Nanowires

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783866449053 Year: Volume: 8 Pages: VIII, 202 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000029369 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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This work deals with the experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of nanowires. Experiments are conducted in a dedicated system inside the electron microscope. The mechanical response of various material systems is probed, the underlying deformation mechanisms are elucidated and subsequently put into context with mechanical size effects.

Magnetoresistive and Thermoresistive Scanning Probe Microscopy with Applications in Micro- and Nanotechnology

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Book Series: Schriften des Instituts für Mikrostrukturtechnik am Karlsruher Institut für Technologie / Hrsg.: Institut für Mikrostrukturtechnik ISSN: 18695183 ISBN: 9783731502531 Year: Volume: 25 Pages: XI, 164 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000042497 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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This work presents approaches to extend limits of scanning probe microscopy techniques towards more versatile instruments using integrated sensor concepts. For structural surface analysis, magnetoresistive sensing is introduced and thermoresistive sensing is applied to study nanoscale phonon transport in chain-like molecules. Investigating with these techniques the properties of shape memory polymers, a fabrication method to design application-inspired micro- and nanostructures is introduced.

Confocal Laser Microscopy - Principles and Applications in Medicine, Biology, and the Food Sciences

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Book Series: 2013-03-20 ISBN: 9789535110569 9789535142522 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.5772/50821 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Pharmacy and materia medica
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Neil S. Lagali, PhD, obtained undergraduate (McMaster University) and graduate (University of Alberta) degrees in Canada. He has had several years of industry experience and held postdoctoral fellowships in Canada, The Netherlands, and Sweden. He has published over 35 peer-reviewed articles in international journals in the fields of engineering, biomedical optics, biomaterials, ophthalmology, and translational medicine. He has co-authored several book chapters, and holds patents in the fields of optical devices, biosensors, and non-invasive imaging methods. He gives numerous lectures and courses on microscopy and clinical imaging, is a regular invited speaker and session organizer at international conferences, and is an associate editor for the journal BMC Ophthalmology. Dr. Lagali is with the Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoping University, Sweden.

The regulated secretory pathway in neuroendocrine cells

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192465 Year: Pages: 157 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-246-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General) --- Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The regulated secretory pathway is a hallmark of neuroendocrine cells. This process comprises many sequential steps, which include ER-associated protein synthesis, post-translational modification of proteins in the Golgi complex, sorting and packing of secretory proteins into carrier granules, cytoskeleton-based granule transport towards the plasma membrane and tethering, docking and fusion of granules with specialized releasing zones. Each stage is subjected to a rigorous regulation by a plethora of factors that function in a spatially and temporarily coordinated fashion. Much effort has been devoted to characterize the precise role of the regulatory proteins participating in the different steps of this process and to identify new factors in order to obtain a unifying picture of the secretory pathway. In spite of this and given the enormous complexity of the process, certain stages are not fully understood yet and many players remain to be identified. The aim of this Research Topic is to gather review articles and original research papers on the molecular mechanisms that govern and ensure the correct release of neuropeptides.

Diverse functions of mucosal resident memory T cells

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195398 Year: Pages: 86 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-539-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Early studies recognized the unique phenotype and attributes of T cells found in mucosal tissues, such as the intestines, skin, lung and female reproductive tract. This special topic issue will cover many aspects of mucosal-resident T cell biology during infection and disease and is dedicated to Leo Lefrancois, a pioneer in this field who recently passed away. A major proportion of these mucosal T cells are memory T cells, now recognized as a major constituent of memory T cells referred to as tissue-resident memory T cells. Unlike central and effector memory T cell subsets, tissue-resident memory T cells exhibit tissue specificity with minimal systemic migration. Nonetheless, tissue-resident memory T cells share a similar origin and display some overlapping phenotypes with their other memory T cell counterparts. Articles in this issue will describe the different types of memory T cells residing in mucosal tissues, their origins and functions as well as how they vary among discrete mucosal sites. Manuscripts will consider the unique physiological environments and cellular constituents which facilitate tissue residency while preserving tissue function. Additionally, there will be descriptions of the various mechanisms responsible for the migration and segregation of tissue resident memory CD8 T cells from the peripheral T cell pool. Although the mechanisms facilitating the sequestration of tissue-resident memory T cells within a respective tissue has not well characterized, various theories will also be discussed. Lastly, how these T cells contribute to immunity to pathogens, cancer, and autoimmunity and could be modified through vaccination or therapeutic intervention will be described. As mucosal tissues are the major portals of pathogen entry and frequent transformation, the activities and persistence of tissue resident memory T cells is crucial for mediating protection at these sites.

Functional Imaging in living Plants - Cell Biology meets Physiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194650 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-465-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The study of plant cell physiology is currently experiencing a profound transformation. Novel techniques allow dynamic in vivo imaging with subcellular resolution, covering a rapidly growing range of plant cell physiology. Several basic biological questions that have been inaccessible by the traditional combination of biochemical, physiological and cell biological approaches now see major progress. Instead of grinding up tissues, destroying their organisation, or describing cell- and tissue structure, without a measure for its function, novel imaging approaches can provide the critical link between localisation, function and dynamics. Thanks to a fast growing collection of available fluorescent protein variants and sensors, along with innovative new microscopy technologies and quantitative analysis tools, a wide range of plant biology can now be studied in vivo, including cell morphology & migration, protein localization, topology & movement, protein-protein interaction, organelle dynamics, as well as ion, ROS & redox dynamics. Within the cell, genetic targeting of fluorescent protein probes to different organelles and subcellular locations has started to reveal the stringently compartmentalized nature of cell physiology and its sophisticated spatiotemporal regulation in response to environmental stimuli. Most importantly, such cellular processes can be monitored in their natural 3D context, even in complex tissues and organs – a condition not easily met in studies on mammalian cells. Recent new insights into plant cell physiology by functional imaging have been largely driven by technological developments, such as the design of novel sensors, innovative microscopy & imaging techniques and the quantitative analysis of complex image data. Rapid further advances are expected which will require close interdisciplinary interaction of plant biologists with chemists, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists. High-throughput approaches will become increasingly important, to fill genomic data with ‘life’ on the scale of cell physiology. If the vast body of information generated in the -omics era is to generate actual mechanistic understanding of how the live plant cell works, functional imaging has enormous potential to adopt the role of a versatile standard tool across plant biology and crop breeding. We welcome original research papers, methodological papers, reviews and mini reviews, with particular attention to contributions in which novel imaging techniques enhance our understanding of plant cell physiology and permits to answer questions that cannot be easily addressed with other techniques.

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