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Mineral Matter and Trace Elements in Coal

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038426226 9783038426233 Year: Pages: 382 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-10 12:56:06
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Minerals are very significant components of coal from both academic and practical perspectives. Minerals may react when the coal is burned, either forming an ash residue, or, in many cases, releasing volatile components, or being needed to be removed as slag from the blast furnace during metallurgical processing. Minerals in coal can also be a source of unwanted abrasion, stickiness, corrosion, or pollution associated with coal handling and use. Minerals in coal, in some cases, are major carriers of valuable metals, such as Ga, Al, and rare earth elements, and these coals with highly-evaluated valuable metals have the potential to be raw sources for industry use. From the genetic point of view, the minerals in coal are products of the processes associated with peat accumulation and rank advance, as well as other aspects of epigenetic processes, and, thus, the minerals in coal can provide information on the depositional conditions and geologic history of individual coal beds, coal-bearing sequences, and regional tectonic evolution. This Special Issue, “Minerals in Coal”, focuses on providing an up-to-date series of papers, covering research and technological developments in the nature, origin, and significance of the minerals in coal, and productions derived from combustion and gasification.

Advanced Topics in Biomineralization

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ISBN: 9789535100454 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.5772/1095 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Advanced Topics in Biomineralization is a compendium of current topics focusing on processes of formation, organization, as well as mineralization of novel structural materials. From enchondral ossification to the application of biomineralized cement, the subject of biomineralization encompasses a range of diverse disciplines including molecular biology, supramolecular chemistry, materials science and engineering. A common theme in all these areas of research in biomineralization is the ability to utilize strategies from Nature to create functional materials. By understanding Nature's tools to make strong and tough materials, similar properties can be endowed into man-made materials in the near future.

Bronzezeitliche Fleischverarbeitung im Salzbergtal bei Hallstatt

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783700172611 Year: Pages: 160 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_453482 Language: German
Publisher: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 57
Added to DOAB on : 2013-09-21 22:37:31
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An animal bone assemblage discovered in an area of Late Bronze Age aboveground activities at the Hallstatt salt mining site was analysed. Together with sunken logwall structurs the results support the idea of a large-scale production of salt-meat, ham and bacon.

Criticality of the Rare Earth Elements: Current and Future Sources and Recycling

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ISBN: 9783038970170 9783038970187 Year: Pages: VIII, 164 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-10 13:38:18
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Rare earth elements (REE) are critical to our modern way of life, although potential primary and secondary sources of these elements and the economics of the REE sector remain somewhat poorly understood. This Special Issue focuses on furthering our understanding of the criticality and potential sources of rare earth elements as well as the economics of the REE sector. The papers in this Special Issue provide further insight into the full life cycle of REE, information that is vital to ensuring the existence of sustainable sources of these critical elements into the future.

Contributions to Mineralization

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ISBN: 9789535137481 9789535137498 9789535140689 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68760 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Contributions to Mineralization provide some new aspects on economically important mineral deposits from various locations in Asia, Africa, and Europe in terms of their genesis, geochemical, and age considerations. Mining industry and mineral engineering issues are also discussed in the book through some new statistical approaches and economic aspects. The book represents a useful guide for specialists in the fields of mineralogy, economic geology, mining engineering, environmental impacts, and mining industry.

Zeolites - Useful Minerals

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ISBN: 9789535125761 9789535125778 9789535141907 Year: Pages: 226 DOI: 10.5772/61950 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:09

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This book collects recent results about research activities on zeolites, from synthesis to application. It is composed of two sections. The first is devoted to articles and brief review articles on the synthesis of zeolite from fly ash and final application of these newly formed minerals to solve environmental problems. The second part of the book provides useful information on different applications both of natural and synthetic zeolites ranging from environmental pollution to industrial and commercial applications. The performance of zeolite molecular sieves, hollow titanium zeolites and luminescent zeolites is interesting considering the new frontiers reached by the research on zeolites. This book is a useful instrument for researchers, teachers and students who are interested in investigating innovative aspects of the studies on zeolite.

Mineral Surface Reactions at the Nanoscale

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ISBN: 9783038978961 / 9783038978978 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-897-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Reactions at mineral surfaces are central to all geochemical processes. As minerals comprise the rocks of the Earth, the processes occurring at the mineral–aqueous fluid interface control the evolution of the rocks and hence the structure of the crust of the Earth during processes such as metamorphism, metasomatism, and weathering. In recent years focus has been concentrated on mineral surface reactions made possible through the development of advanced analytical methods such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), advanced electron microscopies (SEM and TEM), phase shift interferometry, confocal Raman spectroscopy, and advanced synchrotron-based applications, to enable mineral surfaces to be imaged and analyzed at the nanoscale. Experiments are increasingly complemented by molecular simulations to confirm or predict the results of these studies. This has enabled new and exciting possibilities to elucidate the mechanisms that govern mineral–fluid reactions. In this Special Issue, “Mineral Surface Reactions at the Nanoscale”, we present 12 contributions that highlight the role and importance of mineral surfaces in varying fields of research.

Arctic Mineral Resources. Science and Technology

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ISBN: 9783038978244 9783038978251 Year: Pages: 432 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-825-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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The Arctic zone of the Earth is a major source of mineral and other natural resources for the future development of science and technology. It contains a large supply of strategic mineral deposits, including rare earths, copper, phosphorus, niobium, platinum-group elements, and other critical metals. The continued melting of the sea ice due to climate change makes these resources more accessible than ever before. However, the mineral exploration in the Arctic has always been a challenge due to the climatic restrictions, remote location, and vulnerability of Arctic ecosystems. This book covers a broad range of topics related to the problem of Arctic mineral resources, including geological, geochemical, and mineralogical aspects of their occurrence and formation; chemical technologies; and environmental and economic problems related to mineral exploration. The contributions can be tentatively classified into four major types: geodynamics and metallogeny, mineralogy and petrology, mineralogy and crystallography, and mining and chemical technologies associated with the exploration of mineral deposits and the use of raw materials for manufacturing new products. The book can be of interest for all those interested in Arctic issues and especially in Arctic mineral resources and associated problems of mineralogy, geology, geochemistry, and technology.

Keywords

forsterite --- typochemistry --- crystal structure --- Kovdor phoscorite–carbonatite complex --- pyrochlore supergroup minerals --- typochemistry --- crystal structure --- Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex --- pyrrhotite --- chalcopyrite --- pentlandite --- cobaltpentlandite --- typochemistry --- crystal structure --- Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex --- shkatulkalite --- titanosilicate --- crystal structure --- Kola Peninsula --- Lovozero alkaline massif --- transformation mineral species --- vuonnemite --- titanium --- niobium --- heap leaching --- bacterial leaching --- cryomineralogenesis --- low-grade copper-nickel ore --- raw materials --- apatite-nepheline-titanite ore --- sulfuric-acidic decomposition --- titanyl sulfate --- hydrothermal synthesis --- ivanyukite --- batievaite-(Y) --- hainite-(Y) --- titanosilicate --- rinkite group minerals --- Kola Peninsula --- Sakharjok massif --- Keivy alkaline province --- transformation mineral species --- vanadium mineralization --- mineralogy --- Paleoproterozoic --- Kola region --- Arctic zone --- Fennoscandian Shield --- zircon --- macrocrysts --- kimberlite --- trace elements --- geochronology --- cathodoluminescence --- Ti-in-zircon geothermometry --- antigorite --- ore dressing tailings --- mechanical activation --- alkali-activated binder --- Yenisei-Khatanga basin --- Siberian craton --- Arctic --- oil --- gas --- petroleum potential --- geodynamics --- apatite --- Khibiny --- apatite-nepheline deposit --- phase diagram apatite-nepheline-diopside --- silicocarbonatite --- melteigite --- calcite --- nepheline --- zeolite group minerals --- garnet --- crystal fractionation --- Breivikbotn --- Northern Norway --- saponite-containing waters --- diamond processing plants --- cryogenic treatment --- electrochemical separation --- saponite product applications --- U mineralization --- hydrothermal deposits --- U-Pb --- Rb-Sr --- Kola region --- evolution of the composition --- basic rocks --- Precambrian --- search of trend differences --- geodynamic evolution --- metallogeny --- beryllium minerals --- chemical composition --- mineral data --- alkaline rocks --- granite --- pegmatites --- hydrothermal veins --- Kola Peninsula --- Plume --- LIP --- PGE --- Palaeoproterozoic --- mafic intrusion --- U-Pb --- isotopes --- PGE --- South Reef --- West-Pana intrusion --- Fedorova-Pana Complex --- zircon dating --- U-Pb --- Khibiny promising structures --- conductive layers --- MHD-source “Khibiny”, Pechenga structure --- Kola Peninsula --- greenstone belt --- gold --- Kola Peninsula --- Northern Karelia --- rock alteration --- n/a

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