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Charophytes: Evolutionary Ancestors of Plants and Emerging Models for Plant Research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451647 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-164-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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The charophytes are the group of green algae that are anestral and most closely related to land plants. Today, these organisms are not only important in evoutionary studies but have become outstanding model organisms for plant research.

Mobile Genetic Elements in Cellular Differentiation, Genome Stability, and Cancer

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453894 Year: Pages: 123 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-389-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-22 11:50:10
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The human genome, as with the genome of most organisms, is comprised of various types of mobile genetic element derived repeats. Mobile genetic elements that mobilize by an RNA intermediate, include both autonomous and non-autonomous retrotransposons, and mobilize by a “copy and paste” mechanism that relies of the presence of a functional reverse transcriptase activity. The extent to which these different types of elements are actively mobilizing varies among organisms, as revealed with the advent of Next Generation DNA sequencing (NGS).To understand the normal and aberrant mechanisms that impact the mobility of these elements requires a more extensive understanding of how these elements interact with molecular pathways of the cell, including DNA repair, recombination and chromatin. In addition, epigenetic based-mechanisms can also influence the mobility of these elements, likely by transcriptional activation or repression in certain cell types. Studies regarding how mobile genetic elements interface and evolve with these pathways will rely on genomic studies from various model organisms. In addition, the mechanistic details of how these elements are regulated will continue to be elucidated with the use of genetic, biochemical, molecular, cellular, and bioinformatic approaches. Remarkably, the current understanding regarding the biology of these elements in the human genome, suggests these elements may impact developmental biology, including cellular differentiation, neuronal development, and immune function. Thus, aberrant changes in these molecular pathways may also impact disease, including neuronal degeneration, autoimmunity, and cancer.

Grand Celebration: 10th Anniversary of the Human Genome Project

ISBN: 9783038421245 9783038421702 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 276 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-24 15:19:15
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In 1990, scientists began working together on one of the largest biological research projects ever proposed. The project proposed to sequence the three billion nucleotides in the human genome. The Human Genome Project took 13 years and was completed in April 2003, at a cost of approximately three billion dollars. It was a major scientific achievement that forever changed the understanding of our own nature. The sequencing of the human genome was in many ways a triumph for technology as much as it was for science. From the Human Genome Project, powerful technologies have been developed (e.g., microarrays and next generation sequencing) and new branches of science have emerged (e.g., functional genomics and pharmacogenomics), paving new ways for advancing genomic research and medical applications of genomics in the 21st century. The investigations have provided new tests and drug targets, as well as insights into the basis of human development and diagnosis/treatment of cancer and several mysterious humans diseases. This genomic revolution is prompting a new era in medicine, which brings both challenges and opportunities. Parallel to the promising advances over the last decade, the study of the human genome has also revealed how complicated human biology is, and how much remains to be understood. The legacy of the understanding of our genome has just begun. To celebrate the 10th anniversary of the essential completion of the Human Genome Project, in April 2013 Genes launched this Special Issue, which highlights the recent scientific breakthroughs in human genomics, with a collection of papers written by authors who are leading experts in the field.

Grand Celebration: 10th Anniversary of the Human Genome Project

ISBN: 9783038421252 9783038421719 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 268
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-24 15:21:05
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In 1990, scientists began working together on one of the largest biological research projects ever proposed. The project proposed to sequence the three billion nucleotides in the human genome. The Human Genome Project took 13 years and was completed in April 2003, at a cost of approximately three billion dollars. It was a major scientific achievement that forever changed the understanding of our own nature. The sequencing of the human genome was in many ways a triumph for technology as much as it was for science. From the Human Genome Project, powerful technologies have been developed (e.g., microarrays and next generation sequencing) and new branches of science have emerged (e.g., functional genomics and pharmacogenomics), paving new ways for advancing genomic research and medical applications of genomics in the 21st century. The investigations have provided new tests and drug targets, as well as insights into the basis of human development and diagnosis/treatment of cancer and several mysterious humans diseases. This genomic revolution is prompting a new era in medicine, which brings both challenges and opportunities. Parallel to the promising advances over the last decade, the study of the human genome has also revealed how complicated human biology is, and how much remains to be understood. The legacy of the understanding of our genome has just begun. To celebrate the 10th anniversary of the essential completion of the Human Genome Project, in April 2013 Genes launched this Special Issue, which highlights the recent scientific breakthroughs in human genomics, with a collection of papers written by authors who are leading experts in the field.

Grand Celebration: 10th Anniversary of the Human Genome Project

ISBN: 9783038421269 9783038421726 Year: Volume: 3 Pages: 274 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-24 15:22:31
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Abstract

In 1990, scientists began working together on one of the largest biological research projects ever proposed. The project proposed to sequence the three billion nucleotides in the human genome. The Human Genome Project took 13 years and was completed in April 2003, at a cost of approximately three billion dollars. It was a major scientific achievement that forever changed the understanding of our own nature. The sequencing of the human genome was in many ways a triumph for technology as much as it was for science. From the Human Genome Project, powerful technologies have been developed (e.g., microarrays and next generation sequencing) and new branches of science have emerged (e.g., functional genomics and pharmacogenomics), paving new ways for advancing genomic research and medical applications of genomics in the 21st century. The investigations have provided new tests and drug targets, as well as insights into the basis of human development and diagnosis/treatment of cancer and several mysterious humans diseases. This genomic revolution is prompting a new era in medicine, which brings both challenges and opportunities. Parallel to the promising advances over the last decade, the study of the human genome has also revealed how complicated human biology is, and how much remains to be understood. The legacy of the understanding of our genome has just begun. To celebrate the 10th anniversary of the essential completion of the Human Genome Project, in April 2013 Genes launched this Special Issue, which highlights the recent scientific breakthroughs in human genomics, with a collection of papers written by authors who are leading experts in the field.

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