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New frontiers in the neuropsychopharmacology of mental illness

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194049 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-404-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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In recent years, mental illnesses have become recognized as a huge emotional and financial burden to the individual, their relatives and society at large. Stress-related and mood disorders as well as psychoactive substance abuse are among the disorders associated with most disability in high income countries. Suicide, which is often attributed to some underlying mental disorders, is a leading cause of death among teenagers and young adults. At the same time, mental disorders pose some of the toughest challenges in neuroscience research. There are many different categories of mental disorder as defined and classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10). Despite the ongoing improvements of those widely used manuals, the validity and reliability of their diagnoses remain a constant debate. However, it has now become accepted by the scientific community that mental disorders can arise from multiple sources. In that regard, both clinical and animal studies looking at gene-environment interactions have helped to better understand the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology as well as the discovery of treatments for mental disorders. This Research Topic aims to cover recent progress in research studying how genetic make-up and environmental factors (such as stress paradigm or pharmacological treatment) can contribute to the development of mental disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia. This Research Topic also seeks to highlight studies looking at affective-like disorders following the intake of drugs of abuse. We also welcome all research articles, review papers, brief communications, and commentary on topics related to the broad field of Neuropsychopharmacology.

Mood and Cognition in Old Age

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456420 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-642-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Improving psychological well-being and cognitive health is now listed as the priority on the healthy aging agenda. Depression and cognitive impairment are great challenges for the elderly population. There have been numerous studies on depression and cognitive impairment and dementia. However, the neural correlates of depression and cognitive impairment have not yet been elucidated. With the development of neuroscience and relevant technologies, studies on anatomical and functional neural networks, neurobiological mechanisms of mood and cognition in old age will provide more insight into the potential diagnosis, prevention and intervention in depression and cognitive impairment. For example, longitudinal neuroimaging studies depicting the trajectories of patterns of structural and functional brain networks of mild cognitive impairment may provide potential imaging markers for the onset of dementia.Population-based studies have addressed the potential interaction between mood and cognitive impairment in old age. However, there are few studies to explore the potential neural mechanism of the relationship between depression and cognitive impairment in old age.In all of this process the contribution of multiple biological events cannot be neglected, particularly the underlying influence of chronic diseases and concomitant polymedication as well as the geriatric conditions, like frailty, frequently present in this elderly population, which also compromise the cognitive function and mood determining depression and conducing to worse outcomes with more morbidity and mortality.

5 Human Interaction (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch5 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"During military exercises, crisis situations give the participants mood experiences.
By exploring the concept of “mood”, our aim is to contribute to the development
of new interaction theory. We will explore three perspectives related to mood
and the possibility of changing mood: (1) A Mood-Based Perspective: Heidegger
ascribes moods a fundamental role in human life. Before a human being can think
or feel something, he or she is already attuned, already in a mood that structures
how reality appears to them; (2) A Rhetorical Perspective: Even though Heidegger
understands moods as a non-thematized horizon, our moods can nevertheless be
changed. Here we elaborate on Aristotle’s ideas on rhetoric as the first systematic
hermeneutics of the interacting, everyday human being; and (3) A Pedagogical
Perspective: Pedagogy here refers to learning about the development of humans in
society. An existential part of human existence is to sense moods and be attuned
to “the other”. Then we have the possibility of changing the mood and establishing
harmony. Finally, a conceptual model is presented to show the theoretical and practical
implications beyond the military exercise that has been the point of departure
for this text."

Neuroinflammation and Behaviour

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196029 Year: Pages: 181 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-602-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The brain and immune system are involved in an intricate network of bidirectional communication. This relationship is vital for optimal physiological and psychological development and functioning but can also result in unwanted outcomes. In particular, this interaction plays an important role in cognition, mood and behaviour. Neuroinflammation is known to contribute to neurological and affective disorders including impaired learning and memory, depressive, anxiety and schizoaffective symptoms, as well as pain. The development of these conditions often occurs on the backdrop of pre-existing physical illnesses which give rise to increased activation of the immune system, such as cancer, obesity, infection and autoimmune disorders. Similarly, psychological states can alter regulation of the immune system. This has been most extensively studied in the context of stress and immune function. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that lead to the onset of inflammation-induced neuropathology and stress-induced immune suppression will contribute to the development of novel and effective treatment strategies for both the disease and its neurological side effects. In this research topic we explored the relationship between the immune system and the brain throughout life. We include both original research and review papers from animal, clinical and molecular perspectives.

How Do Emotions and Feelings Regulate Physical Activity?

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452712 Year: Pages: 149 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-271-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Up to date the scientific discussion about how frequency and regularity of physical activity can be increased is dominated by social-cognitive models. However, increasing evidence suggests that emotions and feelings have greater influence on physical activity than originally assumed (Rhodes, Fiala, & Conner, 2009). Generally speaking, humans possess an evaluative system with a basic action tendency to approach pleasurable events and to avoid aversive ones (Cacioppo & Berntson, 1999). Evaluative responses to a behavior and associated emotional states may influence a decision regarding whether or not to repeat being physically active. Generally, behavior associated with positive evaluations has a higher probability of being repeated than behaviors without such an association. On the contrary, an association with negative evaluations tends to decrease the probability of repeating to be physically active. Hence, evaluative responses to physical activity or the related situation can be an important aspect in the process of physical activity maintenance (McAuley et al., 2007). Several social-cognitive models of behavior change and maintenance were recently extended to take the influence of affective responses into account, in a way that variables already included in the models (e.g. outcome expectancies or attitudes) were more clearly articulated into their cognitive and affective components. For example, with regard to Social Cognitive Theory, Gellert, Ziegelmann and Schwarzer (2012) proposed to distinguish between affective and health-related outcome expectancies, and in the Theory of Planned Behavior, researchers suggested to differentiate between cognitive and affective attitudes (Lawton, Conner, & McEachan, 2009). The results of these and other studies suggest that affective components make a unique contribution to the explanation of the physical activity behavior (Brand, 2006). Other examples come from social cognition research, where it was shown that automatic evaluative responses are part of our everyday life and that they decisively influence health behavior (Hofmann, Friese, & Wiers, 2008). Accordingly, there is evidence that people who exercise regulary hold more positive automatic evaluations with exercise than non-exercisers (Bluemke, Brand, Schweizer, & Kahlert, 2010). Although significant progress has been made in showing that evaluative responses to physical activity and associated emotional states are important predictors of physical activity underlying psychological processes are far from being fully understood. Some important issues still remain to be resolved. Which role play affective states compared to concrete emotions when influencing physical activity? How do affective states and emotions interact with cognitive variables such as intentions? Are evaluative processes before, during or after physical activity important to predict future physical activity? Do negative and positive evaluations interact antagonistically or rather synergistically when physical activity as a new behavior shall be adopted? Future research will help us to resolve these and a lot of other so far unresolved issues.

Vitamin C: Current Concepts in Human Physiology

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ISBN: 9783038972945 9783038972952 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-295-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-05 12:11:11
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[Vitamin C is synthesized by almost all animals. However, for humans, it is a vitamin that needs constant replenishment in the diet. While its role as an anti-oxidant and for preventing scurvy have been known for a long time, novel functions and unrecognized associations continue to be identified for this enigmatic molecule. In the past decade, new details have emerged regarding differences in its uptake by oral and intravenous modes. While vitamin C deficiency remains largely unknown and poorly addressed in many segments of the population, novel pharmacological roles for high-dose, intravenous vitamin C in many disease states have now been postulated and investigated. This has shifted its role in health and disease from the long-perceived notion as merely a vitamin and an anti-oxidant to a pleiotropic molecule with a broad anti-inflammatory, epigenetic, and anti-cancer profile.This Special Issue comprises original research papers and reviews on vitamin C metabolism and function that relate to the following topics: understanding its role in the modulation of inflammation and immunity, therapeutic applications and safety of pharmacological ascorbate in disease, and the emerging role of vitamin C as a pleiotropic modulator of critical care illness and cancer.]

Intrinsic Clocks

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454518 Year: Pages: 117 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-451-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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"Intrinsic Clocks" presents an array of current research activities on intrinsic clocks and their contributions to biology and physiology. It elucidates the current models for the intrinsic clocks, their molecular components and key mechanisms as well as the key brain regions and animal models for their behavioral analysis.It provides a timely view on how these clocks guide behavior, and how their disruption may cause depressive-like behavior and impairment in cognitive functions. Thereby, any specific method by which the mood-related functions of the intrinsic clocks might be influenced bears therapeutic potential and has clinical interest.The importance of some of these mechanisms was highlighted by the 2017 award of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael W. Young for their discoveries of the genetic control of the daily biological rhythm. The key to the explanation was the discovery of transcription-translation feedback loops of the so-called “clock genes.”

The Janus-Face of Language: Where Are the Emotions in Words and the Words in Emotions?

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455508 Year: Pages: 316 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-550-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Language has long been considered independent from emotions. In the last few years however research has accumulated empirical evidence against this theoretical belief of a purely cognitive-based foundation of language. In particular, through research on emotional word processing it has been shown, that processing of emotional words activates emotional brain structures, elicits emotional facial expressions and modulates action tendencies of approach and avoidance, probably in a similar manner as processing of non-verbal emotional stimuli does. In addition, it has been shown that emotional content is already processed in the visual cortex in a facilitated manner which suggests that processing of emotional language content is able to circumvent in-depth semantic analysis.


Yet, this is only one side of the coin. Very recent research putting words into context suggests that language may also construe emotions and that by studying word processing one can provide a window to one’s own feelings. All in all, the empirical observations support the thesis of a close relationship between language and emotions at the level of word meaning as a specific evolutionary achievement of the human species. As such, this relationship seems to be different from the one between emotions and speech, where emotional meaning is conveyed by nonverbal features of the voice. But what does this relationship between written words and emotions theoretically imply for the processing of emotional information?


The present Research Topic and its related articles aim to provide answers to this question. This book comprises several experimental studies investigating the brain structures and the time course of emotional word processing. Included are studies examining the affective core dimensions underlying affective word processing and studies that show how these basic affective dimensions influence word processing in general as well as the interaction between words, feelings and (expressive) behavior. In addition, new impetus comes from studies that on the one hand investigate how task-, sublexical and intrapersonal factors influence emotional word processing and on the other hand extend emotional word processing to the domains of social context and self-related processing. Finally, future perspectives are outlined including research on emotion and language acquisition, culture and multilingualism.


In summary, this textbook offers scientists from different disciplines insight into the neurophysiological, behavioral and subjective mechanisms underlying emotion and language interactions. It gives new impulses to existing theories on the embodiment of language and emotion and provides new ways of looking at emotion-cognition interactions.

Gluten-Free Diet

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ISBN: 9783038977360 9783038977377 Year: Pages: 318 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-737-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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In the last few years, an increasing number of individuals have adopted a gluten free diet (GFD). A significant proportion of that includes patients affected by celiac disease (CD), who have to follow a strict GFD for medical purposes. However, a high number of individuals are currently following a GFD without medical counseling and without a specific diagnosis needing a gluten withdrawal from the diet. This is due to the frequently incorrect information diffused on the Internet and mass media on the topic of GFD. For these reasons, research on the GFD and its clinical use and biological effects is urgently needed.

Keywords

Celiac Disease --- depression --- gluten-free diet --- dietary adherence --- gluten --- gastric emptying --- cholecyst --- celiac disease --- non celiac gluten sensitivity --- gluten-free diet --- gastrointestinal symptoms --- quality of life --- Brazilian CD-QoL --- quality of life --- celiac disease --- questionnaire --- coeliac disease --- celiac disease --- gluten --- gluten-free diet --- fortification --- micronutrient --- cost --- celiac disease --- diagnosis --- gliadin --- gluten --- glutenin --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- oral food challenge --- pepsin --- wheat allergy --- celiac disease (CD) --- quality of life (QoL) --- gluten-free diet --- disease duration --- place of residence --- educational level --- economic status --- body mass index (BMI) --- celiac disease --- gluten-free diet --- gut microbiota --- gluten-free diet --- celiac disease --- children --- teenagers --- gluten-related disorders --- celiac disease --- gut microbiota --- gluten-free diet --- Pseudomonas --- gluten-free diet --- mineral --- deficiency --- calcium --- iron --- magnesium --- zinc --- celiac disease --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- gut motility --- gluten-free diet --- gluten-related disorders --- gluten-free diet --- coeliac disease --- non-coeliac gluten sensitivity --- irritable bowel syndrome --- mood disorders --- affective disorders --- depression --- major depressive disorder --- mental health --- nutrition --- celiac disease --- gluten-free diet --- diary recommended intake --- food habit --- body composition --- non-coeliac gluten sensitivity --- gluten --- wheat --- low FODMAP diet --- irritable bowel syndrome --- beta cell --- beta-cell stress --- celiac disease --- gluten-free diet --- high-fat diet-induced obesity --- intestinal permeability --- islet of Langerhans --- NOD mouse --- type 1 diabetes --- type 2 diabetes --- FODMAP intake --- celiac disease --- irritable bowel syndrome --- gluten-free diet --- gastrointestinal symptoms --- celiac disease --- gluten-free diet --- effectiveness --- adherence --- nutritionists --- clinic --- serology --- duodenal biopsies --- structured questionnaires --- peptides derived from gluten in faeces and urine --- gluten --- adherence --- serology --- villous atrophy --- mucosal recovery --- threshold --- celiac disease --- body composition --- gluten free diet --- children --- celiac disease --- gluten --- gluten-free diet --- screening --- outcome --- gluten sensitivity --- osteoporosis --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- gluten re-introduction --- gluten-free diet --- gastrointestinal symptoms --- celiac disease --- ?-gliadin --- 33-mer --- DQ2.5-glia-?1 --- DQ2.5-glia-?2 --- DQ2.5-glia-?3 epitopes --- wheat species --- n/a --- gluten --- gluten-free diet --- coeliac disease --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- non-coeliac wheat sensitivity --- gliadin --- microbiota

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