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Liver Myofibroblasts

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199891 Year: Pages: 99 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-989-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Abstract

Myofibroblasts (MFB) are found in most tissues of the body. They have the matrix-producing functions of fibroblasts and contractile properties that are known from smooth muscle cells. Fundamental work of the last decades has shed remarkable light on their origin, biological functions and role in disease. During hepatic injury, they fulfill manifold functions in connective tissue remodeling and wound healing, but overshooting activity of MFB on the other side induces fibrosis and cirrhosis. The present e-book "Liver myofibroblasts" contains 9 articles providing comprehensive information on "hot topics" of MFB. In our opening editorial we provide a short overview of the origin of MFB and their relevance in extracellular matrix formation which is the hallmark of hepatic fibrosis. Thereafter, leading experts in the field share their current perspectives on special topics of (i) MFB in development and disease, ii) their role in hepatic fibrogenesis, and (iii) promising therapies and targets that are suitable to interfere with hepatic fibrosis.

Redox Regulation in Skeletal Muscle Aging and Exercise

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451968 Year: Pages: 101 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-196-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Skeletal muscle represents the largest organ of the human body and comprises about 40% of total body mass in humans. Even in people who ‘age well’, there is a noticeable loss of muscle strength and function that accelerates dramatically after the age of 60, a major factor in the reduction in life quality for the aging population. One of the most effective interventions to maintain muscle mass and function is through exercise. Skeletal muscle generates reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species in response to muscle contractions. The concentration and species of ROS/RNS generated can depend on the age and fitness of the individual, muscle fibre type and the intensity of the muscle contractions. ROS/RNS generate unique signaling cascades that are not only essential in skeletal muscle contraction and adaptation but also play a role in a wide array of cell processes including cell proliferation, protein synthesis/degradation, immune response and antioxidant defense. ROS/RNS generated by contractions are involved in a co-ordinated local response that is tightly controlled at all levels from generation to detoxification. This collection of original articles and reviews highlights investigations that measure different aspects of the redox response of skeletal muscle to aging and exercise.

Peroxiredoxin 6 as a Unique Member of the Peroxiredoxin Family

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ISBN: 9783038979340 / 9783038979357 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-935-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The peroxiredoxin family was discovered approximately 30 years ago and is now recognized as one of the most important families of enzymes related to antioxidant defense and cellular signaling. Peroxiredoxin 6 shares the basic enzymatic functions that characterize this family, but also exhibits several unique and crucial activities. These include the ability to reduce phospholipid hydroperoxides, phospholipase A2 activity, and an acyl transferase activity that is important in phospholipid remodeling. This book describes the available models for investigating the unique functions of PRDX6 and its role in normal physiological function, as well its roles in the pathophysiology of diseases including cancer, diseases of the eye, and male fertility.

Thioredoxin and Glutaredoxin Systems

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ISBN: 9783038978367 / 9783038978374 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-837-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This Special Issue features recent data concerning thioredoxins and glutaredoxins from various biological systems, including bacteria, mammals, and plants. Four of the sixteen articles are review papers that deal with the regulation of development of the effect of hydrogen peroxide and the interactions between oxidants and reductants, the description of methionine sulfoxide reductases, detoxification enzymes that require thioredoxin or glutaredoxin, and the response of plants to cold stress, respectively. This is followed by eleven research articles that focus on a reductant of thioredoxin in bacteria, a thioredoxin reductase, and a variety of plant and bacterial thioredoxins, including the m, f, o, and h isoforms and their targets. Various parameters are studied, including genetic, structural, and physiological properties of these systems. The redox regulation of monodehydroascorbate reductase, aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, and cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase could have very important consequences in plant metabolism. Also, the properties of the mitochondrial o-type thioredoxins and their unexpected capacity to bind iron–sulfur center (ISC) structures open new developments concerning the redox mitochondrial function and possibly ISC assembly in mitochondria. The final paper discusses interesting biotechnological applications of thioredoxin for breadmaking.

Keywords

methionine --- methionine sulfoxide --- methionine sulfoxide reductase --- physiological function --- protein --- plant --- repair --- redox homeostasis --- signaling --- stress --- mitochondria --- thioredoxin --- iron–sulfur cluster --- redox regulation --- ALAD --- tetrapyrrole biosynthesis --- redox control --- thioredoxins --- posttranslational modification --- chlorophyll --- redox regulation --- thioredoxin --- ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase --- chloroplast --- H2O2 --- redox signalling --- development --- regeneration --- adult stem cells --- metazoan --- cyanobacteria --- thioredoxin --- photosynthesis --- redox active site --- thioredoxin --- disulfide --- flavin --- NADPH --- X-ray crystallography --- SAXS --- methanoarchaea --- chilling stress --- cold temperature --- posttranslational modification --- regulation --- ROS --- thiol redox network --- thioredoxin --- thioredoxin --- Calvin-Benson cycle --- photosynthesis --- carbon fixation --- chloroplast --- macromolecular crystallography --- protein-protein recognition --- electrostatic surface --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- thioredoxin --- glutaredoxin --- legume plant --- symbiosis --- redox homeostasis --- stress --- thioredoxin --- monodehydroascorbate reductase --- water stress --- protein oxidation --- antioxidants --- ascorbate --- glutathione --- wheat --- thioredoxin --- thioredoxin reductase --- baking --- redox --- dough rheology --- protein oxidation --- methionine oxidation --- methionine sulfoxide reductases --- oxidized protein repair --- ageing --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- cysteine alkylation --- cysteine reactivity --- MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry --- thioredoxin --- X-ray crystallography --- Isocitrate dehydrogenase --- glutathionylation --- nitrosylation --- glutaredoxin --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- thioredoxins --- plastidial --- specificity --- function --- proteomic --- photosynthesis --- Calvin cycle --- n/a

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