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The Neonatal Immune System: A Unique Host-Microbial Interface

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454037 Year: Pages: 175 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-403-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics --- Allergy and Immunology --- Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Abstract

Emerging from the protective environment of the uterus, the newborn is exposed to a myriad of microbes, and quickly establishes a complex microbiome that shapes the infant’s biology in ways that are only now beginning to come to light. Among these exposures are a number of potential pathogens. The host responses to these pathogens in the neonatal period are unique, reflecting a developing immune system even with delivery at term. Preterm infants are delivered at a time when host defense mechanisms are even less developed and therefore face additional risk. As such, the organisms that cause disease in this period are different from the pathogens that are common in other age groups, or the disease they cause manifests in more severe fashion. Developmental alterations in both innate and adaptive immune responses in neonates have been documented among many cell types and pathways over the last several decades. Contemporary insights into the human immune system and methodologies that allow an “omics” approach to these questions have continued to provide new information regarding the mechanisms that underlie the human neonate as an “immunocompromised host.” This Research Topic highlights studies related to this unique host-pathogen interface. Contributions include those related to the innate or adaptive immune system of neonates, their response to microbial colonization or infection, and/or the pathogenesis of microbes causing disease in neonates.

Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics

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ISBN: 9783038979500 / 9783038979517 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-951-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The goal of this Special Issue, “Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics”, is to focus on the importance of pediatric nutrition with probiotics and prebiotics to improve gastrointestinal health in newborn, infants, and children.Specifically, the aim is to clarify if probiotics and prebiotics can influence gut microbiota composition and host-interaction favoring human health and preventing diseases.This new information will provide health care professionals with a widespread, clear and update evidence on probiotics and prebiotics and intestinal gut microbiota in pediatric care.

Keywords

acute diarrhea --- children --- Bacillus clausii --- efficacy --- randomized controlled trials --- breast feeding --- formula feeding --- human milk oligosaccharide --- 2?-fucosyllactose --- Lacto-N-neotetraose --- microbiota --- bifidobacteria --- acute gastroenteritis --- children --- Lactobacillus reuteri --- oral rehydration solution --- probiotics --- zinc --- probiotics --- allergy --- infants --- pediatrics --- human milk oligosaccharides --- human milk --- infant formula --- necrotizing enterocolitis --- preterm infant --- preterm infant --- probiotic --- human milk --- probiotic strain --- safety --- fecal microbiota --- protein hydrolyzed formulas --- cow’s milk protein --- tolerance acquisition --- non-IgE mediated allergy --- microbiome --- intestinal microbiota --- microbial programming --- nutritional programming --- allergy --- prevention --- neonatal --- preterm --- breast milk --- oligosaccharides --- diversity --- necrotizing enterocolitis --- sepsis --- growth --- constipation --- prebiotic --- intestinal transit time --- infant --- Bifidobacterium --- Lactobacillus --- probiotics --- asthma --- Childhood Asthma Control Test --- peak expiratory flow rate --- immunoglobulin E --- “Probiotics”[Mesh] --- “Pregnancy”[Mesh] --- “Infant, Newborn”[Mesh] --- Bifidobacterium breve --- probiotics --- paediatrics --- therapeutic microbiology --- celiac disease --- iron deficiency anemia --- gluten-free diet --- inulin --- prebiotics --- iron absorption --- hepcidin --- probiotics --- microbiota --- celiac disease --- gluten free diet --- probiotics --- functional gastrointestinal disorders --- functional abdominal pain disorders --- functional constipation --- infantile colic --- infant --- colic --- lactobacilli --- n/a --- fecal microbiota --- protein hydrolyzed formulas --- cow’s milk protein --- tolerance acquisition --- non-IgE mediated allergy --- n/a

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